Upland Garden 1948

1948
History of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

1948 is the 42nd year of the Garden and Martha Crone begins her 16th year as Garden Curator.

NOTE on photos: From 1948 to 1957 Martha Crone assembled a collection of Kodachrome slides that she took of plants and landscape of the Wildflower Garden. The assemblage eventually totaled over 4,000 slides. She used these slides to give illustrated lectures about the Garden to various clubs, groups and organizations. Martha Crone was a founding member of The Friends of the Wild Flower Garden, a director from 1952 to 1972 and an honorary life member thereafter.

After her death in 1989 her daughter Janet, passed the collection to the Friends via Friends member Martha Hellander who was in the process of researching a book about Eloise Butler. The Friends sorted the collection and then for a short time, used them at lectures about the Garden. Eventually they were deposited in the Martha Crone Collection at the Minnesota Historical Society. Some of those images are shown on this page.

Many new plants set out in 1948 are, again like 1946 and ’47, non native, apparently an attempt to see what would grow in the new prairie area. Many did not last until the 1951 census. The source is given for some of new plants. Most of this year’s history is concerned with the new plants Martha introduced.

With the development of the Upland Garden, it is incredible the amount of planting Martha Crone did in 1946-1948 and little wonder that her log is virtually devoid of mentioning bird activity, which she usually never neglected. Even the warbler migration is not noted this year. Birds are only mentioned four times. Martha religiously noted the arrival of the first Hummingbird and the departure of the last except this year there is no mention of the last.

Spring 1948

East Woodland path 1948
The east woodland path with the old Garden office in the upper left. photographed in May 1948 by Martha Crone. Photo - Martha Crone Collection, MHS. Click on image for a larger version.

The first Garden Log entry for the season is on April 1st, opening day:

“Not a trace of snow, altho ice on lakes and pools, no plant life anywhere. Paths in good condition except center swamp path.”

The Snow Trilliums were in bloom on April 6 and on the 14th the Pasque Flowers, Bloodroot, Hepaticas and Skunk Cabbage were likewise in bloom. Her first planting of the year was on April 13 with 12 Wild Roses, Rosa blanda.

On April 18: “Thousands of Hepaticas are in bloom, most gorgeous sight. Bloodroots everywhere.” [based on her planting thousands of these, no wonder.]

A large number of plants new to the Garden were introduced in the Spring. "Native" refers to a plant found in the wild in Minnesota, at settlement time. "Introduced" means the plant is found here but not native. "Not native" means the plant has not been found in the wild and not introduced. If the species survived until the 1951 census it is noted in the list. Updated scientific names are given in [ ].

Next is a series of plants from Askov MN via Mr & Mrs Odell, which must have come from a garden or nursery as none are native and many are herb or ornamental garden plants. Some were still in the Garden at the time of her 1951 census but none survived till the 1986 census.


Old Garden Office 1948
The old garden office photographed on June 24, 1948 by Martha Crone. Photo - Martha Crone Collection, MHS. Click on image for a larger version.

The first Hummingbird and Oriole arrived on May 17th. By the time June arrived 2,300 plants, including all the above, had been set out.

Summer 1948

Bog pool 1948
Pool #3 in the marsh, created in 1947 and newly enlarged this year, photographed on Oct. 19, 1948 by Martha Crone. Photo - Martha Crone Collection, MHS. Click on image for a larger version.

The pools Martha had dug in the marsh in 1947, to create a chain of three were enlarged. She writes: “the pools along swamp trail (established last year) were enlarged and have been well stocked with water lilies, both white and yellow, lotus lily, pickerel-weed and other water loving plants.” (2). We have a photo that she took after the enlargement.

Again, a large number of plants new to the Garden were introduced in the Summer. Only two species survived until the 1951 - they are noted in the list. Updated scientific names are given in [ ].

By the end of Summer Martha had set out a total of over 6,400 plants, including all of the above, Her only bird notes during the Summer was the sighting of a young Rose-breasted Grosbeak near the office on June 9th and that by August 22, only the Orioles, Meadow Larks and the Red-eyed Vireo were still singing.

Autumn 1948

Upland Garden 1948
The entrance path into the Upland Garden, photographed by Martha Crone on October 15, 1948. The paths are in the same position as today, but note the lack of Moonseed on the fence. Photo - Martha Crone Collection, MHS. Click on image for a larger version.

By the time the Garden closed the total count of plants set out in 1948 was 8,003. The following plants set out in the Autumn are new to the Garden and we note which ones survived until the 1951 census, most did not. Updated scientific names are given in [ ].

Marsh Path 1948
Path in the marsh, photographed by Martha Crone on Sept. 16, 1948. Photo - Martha Crone Collection, MHS. Click on image for a larger version.

In addition Martha planted seeds of 63 species - listed on 4 pages of hand written notes. Most seeds were planted in flats near the office where they would over-winter as necessary for germination. Her planting continued throughout October and into November as late as Nov. 19 when she mentions snow and sleet. The Garden season had been extended to the end of October in 1947.

As in the previous year, there were some existing species that were planted in very large numbers at various times during the year. Rather than list them by season, here it the list for the year of such plants:
Trillium nivale, Snow Trillium, 314 plants
Hepatica acutiloba, Sharp-lobed Hepatica, 187
Viola pedata, Bird’s-foot Violet, 400
Trillium grandiflorum, Large-flowered Trillium, 300
Liatris pycnostachya, Prairie Blazing Star, 190
Lysimachia nummularia, Moneywort, 105

marsh and birches 1948
View of the marsh and birches, photographed by Martha Crone on October 30, 1948. Photo - Martha Crone Collection, MHS. Click on image for a larger version.

Many of these could be seedlings that Martha had seeded in flats the prior year.

She summarized the years activities in her annual report. Here are two additional items.

“The water system installed in the Fall of 1947 proved very beneficial. The Spring and Summer proved to be one of the driest, without water the loss would have been immeasurable.”

Just over 16 inches of precipitation the entire year compared to almost 28 inches in an average year, 1948 was the driest since 1910. The month of March was most unusual - with a low of -27 degrees F to a high of 70 degrees F, the largest spread ever (97 degrees) for a single month locally.

Attendance: At some time after the war, perhaps with new Superintendent Charles Doell, Martha must have been asked to include attendance figures in her report as they become a staple of reports from that time up through the reports submitted by Ken Avery in the 1960s. “The upward trend in attendance attests to an ever increasing interest in our wild flowers, also the nature-loving public taking advantage of increased facilities. Approximately 43,000 patrons visited the garden during the season.”


Notes:
(1). Garden Log
(2) Annual Reports of the Garden Curator to the Board of Park Commissioners - dated Feb. 26, 1949 to Charles E. Doell.

Photo top of page: A section of the newly developed Upland Garden showing new paths, new plantings and identification stakes; photographed in May 1948 by Martha Crone. Photo - Martha Crone Collection, MHS.

To History of: Previous Year ----------- Subsequent Year

Links to related pages:
- Abbreviated Life of Eloise Butler
- Martha Crone - 2nd Garden Curator
- Ken Avery - 3rd Curator and Gardener
- Cary George - 4th Gardener
- Our Native Plant Reserve - Short document on the origins of the Garden.
- Eloise Butler's writings, a selection of essays written by Eloise Butler on the early Garden years.
- Geography of the Garden- an illustrated tour

References:

Martha Crone's Annual Report to the Board of Park Commissioners dated Feb. 26, 1949 to Superintendent Charles E. Doell.

Martha Crone's Garden Log and her 1951 Census of plants in the Garden.

Various papers and correspondence of Eloise Butler and Martha Crone in the collection of the Minnesota Historical Society.

Meeting Minutes and correspondence of The Friends of the Wild Flower Garden.

Historical Climatology of Minneapolis-St. Paul Area by Charles Fisk.

Friends Home Page

©2017 Friends of the Wild Flower Garden, Inc. All photos are the property of The Friends unless otherwise credited. Photos credited to others are used with permission for educational purposes, for which The Friends thank them and the organization providing the photos. Text and research by Gary Bebeau. "http://www.friendsofthewildflowergarden.org" - 012317