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Plants of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

The oldest public wildflower garden in the United States


Common Name
Clustered Bellflower (Dane's Blood)


Scientific Name
Campanula glomerata L.


Plant Family
Bellflower (Campanulaceae)

Garden Location


Prime Season
Early Summer



Clustered Bellflower is an erect perennial introduced plant of 1 to 2 feet height with a densely hairy stem.

The leaves are of two types - basal and stem. The larger basal leaves are of an oval to lanceolate shape, with tapered bases and long-stalked. The stem leaves are lance shaped, have hairy wavy edges and are without stalks (sessile). The margins have fine hair and the leaf underside is paler in color with long whitish hairs on the veins.

The inflorescence is a terminal cluster of 15 to 20 stalkless flowers. Clusters also appear at the upper leaf axils but may have fewer flowers. Flowers are surrounded by hairy green leafy bracts.

The flowers are 5-parted, bell shaped with a dark violet blue to purplish blue corolla where the 5 petals are united near the base and the obtuse tips spread outward forming the flange of the bell. The calyx is green, hairy, with 5 lobes that have pointed tips. There are five stamens with yellow anthers that are held toward the back of the corolla while the single style with its 3-parted stigma is exserted beyond the lobes of the corolla. Leaf-like small hairy bracts appear among the flowers in the cluster.

Seed: Fertile flowers produce a dry seed pod that contains several brown ovoid, but slightly flattened, seeds that have a slight ridge on the sides which helps with wind dispersion when the pod opens.


Habitat: Clustered Bellflower is a plant of the north temperate zones of Eurasia. It grows in woodlands, dry grasslands and uplands where it is not too moist. It needs at least partial sun, but plants may become top heavy without full sun. It adapts to various soils but prefers calcareous. The root system is a fleshy taproot with associated stolons that spread and cause the plant to form colonies in the right conditions. It is not considered as invasive as the European Bellflower, C. rapunculoides.

Names: The genus name Campanula is derived from the Latin campana, meaning 'little bell'. The species name, glomerata, refers to the tight grouping of the individual flowers clustered into almost rounded heads. This explains the common name of "Clustered Bellflower". However, the alternate common name of "Dane's Blood" is more obscure. The species is common to England and is the county flower of Rutland County in the East Midlands. The best explanation I have heard is that the flower grows in places where the blood of Danes will shed - i.e. the Viking expeditions to the British Isles? The Campanula genus is home to many plants with bell shaped flowers. The author name of the plant classification, 'L.', refers to Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), Swedish botanist and the developer of the binomial nomenclature of modern taxonomy.

Comparisons: The American Bellflower (Campanulastrum americanum) blooms in the Woodland Garden. This species is taller with light blue-violet petals that spread widely forming a star shape on a tall raceme, but not in clusters. In the Upland Garden will be found European Bellflower, C. rapunculoides, where the flowers are also spread out individually on a tall raceme. They have larger corollas and are partially nodding. Two smaller species have similar bell-shaped flowers but the plants have a much different structure with the flowers solitary or in in groups of 2 or 3: Harebell, C. rotundifolia, and Marsh Bellflower, C. aparinoides. See comparison photos below.

See bottom of page for notes on the Garden's planting history, distribution in Minnesota and North America, lore and other references.

Clustered Bellflower Clustered Bellflower

Above: 1st photo - A single specimen with Leafy Spurge and St. Johnswort in the background. 2nd photo - A smaller flower cluster springing from the leaf axil. Note how the stamens are deep in the corolla throat.

Below: 1st photo - The terminal inflorescence. All blooms from late June and early July. 2nd photo - Detail showing the hairy leafy bracts that appear among the flowers. Note the exerted style.

Clustered Bellflower Flower detail

Below: Leaf examples: Note the hairy edges. In the 2nd photo note the developing inflorescence.

Clustered Bellflower bud Clustered Bellflower Leaf

Below: 1st photo - Basal leaves have long stalks. 2nd photo - The underside of the leaf shows paler color and the hairy surface and leaf margin.

Basal leaf Leaf underside

Below: A comparison of the five Bellflowers found in the Garden.

Bellflower comparison


Notes: Clustered Bellflower was introduced to the Garden on August 4, 1950 and again on Sept. 16 by Curator Martha Crone. A few plants exist in isolated places in the Upland Garden. A non-native, introduced from Europe, its' only known habitat in Minnesota outside of gardens is in St. Louis County near Duluth where it has been collected at the former agricultural test plots. Martha Crone reported collecting plants that were growing along a road about 10 miles north of Duluth. In North America it is found in the northern tier of states in the U.S., most of New England and in Canada in Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia.

There are five species of Campanula normally found in Minnesota, two of which are introduced: C. americana, Tall Bellflower; C. aparinoides, Marsh Bellflower; C. rotundifolia, Harebell; C. cervicaria, Bristly Bluebells; and C. rapunculoides, European Bellflower. The latter two are the introductions. All but Bristly Bluebells are, or formerly were, in the Garden.

References and site links

References: Plant characteristics are generally from sources 1A, 32, W2, W3, W7 & W8 plus others as specifically applied. Distribution principally from W1, W2 and 28C. Planting history generally from 1, 4 & 4a. Other sources by specific reference. See Reference List for details.