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Early Summer Flowers of Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

Presented by The Friends of the Wild Flower Garden


Prairie Sundrops

Thumbnails of some of the early summer flowering plants you may encounter on a visit - June to Mid-July. This page includes both the Upland and Woodland Gardens. Alternate common names for plant are shown in ( ), woody plants designated by "*". Timing of bloom will vary with each year's weather pattern.
Plant names with web links lead to a separate page of plant information and photos on that plant.
Images are arranged by six color categories and then by scientific name within color. Plants listed on our Common and Scientific name list that are not currently found in the Garden are not listed below.
Download printable PDF File in Scientific Name Order within Color. Prints at 11 high by 8.5 inches wide, 20 images per page, 30 pages total: Low resolution 5.5mb - - - Hi resolution 40.7mb. Best for printing.


Flowers white and whitish

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Yarrow
Achillea millefolium
Yarrow leaf
Yarrow
Leaf fern-like, astringent aroma.
TBugbane
Black Bugbane
Actaea racemosa
Bugbane leaf
Black Bugbane
leaf 2-3 compound parts near base of stem, leaflets toothed.
Bugbane plant
Black Bugbane
Flower stalk 6 to 8' high, held above leaves. Sepals drop early, petals small.
Garlic Mustard
Garlic Mustard
Alliaria petiolata
Garlic Mustard leaf
Garlic Mustard
Leaves with heart-shape base, coarse teeth. Flowers in terminal spikes.
Garlic mustard plants
Garlic Mustard
Plants can be 4 inches to 6' high. Biennial. First year is a leaf rosette.
Wild Leek
Wild Leek
(Ramp)

Allium tricoccum
Wild Leek leaves
Wild Leek
(Ramp)

Leaves disappear before flowers open
Canada Anemone
Canada Anemone
Anemone canadensis
Canada Anemone leaf
Canada Anemone
Upper stem leaves stalkless, basal look the same, but on long stalks.
Spreading dogbane
Spreading Dogbane
(Common Dogbane)

Apocynum androsaemifolium
spreading dogbane leaf
Spreading Dogbane
Leaves opposite, stems and stalks reddish in sun. Flowers resemble a bell.
Indian Hemp Flower
Prairie Dogbane
(Indianhemp)

Apocynum cannabinum
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Prairie Dogbane
(Indianhemp)
Flowers at top of tall stem, branching only at top.
American Spikenard
American Spikenard
Aralia racemosa
American Spikenard plant
American Spikenard
Flowers whitish-green. Leaves are twice compound, 2+ feet long and wide.
American Spikenard
Leaflets oval, heart-shape base, abrupt tip. Plat 2-7' high
American Spikenard fruit
American Spikenard
Drupes dark purple or reddish-brown in Autumn. Not edible.
Great Indian Plantain
Great Indian Plantain
Arnoglossum reniforme
Great Indian Plantain leaf and stem
Great Indian Plantain
Leaves palmate, large lobes, stem angled & purplish.
Poke Milkweed
Poke Milkweed
Asclepias exaltata
Poke Milkweed plant
Poke Milkweed.
Unbranched. Leaves opposite, to 8" long.
Poke Milkweed pod
Poke Milkweed.
Pods held upright on a downward curving stalk. Brown at maturity.
Whorled Milkweed
Whorled Milkweed
Asclepias verticillata
Whorled Milkweed pod
Whorled Milkweed
Slender pods are held erect on an erect stalk. Brown at maturity.
White False Indigo
White False Indigo
(Wild White Indigo)

Baptisia alba var. macrophylla
False White Indigo leaf
White False Indigo
Leaf 3-parted, leaflets not stalked, Flower stem above leaves.
False White Indigo pods
White False Indigo
Seed pods inflated, dark brown-black at maturity.
Plains Wild Indigo
Plains Wild Indigo
Baptisia bracteata
AKA Longbract Wild Indigo. (Photo Merle R. Black)
Plains wild indigo bract
Plains Wild Indigo
Branching stems to 30", leaves 3-part grayish-green. Large flower bracts. (Photo Derek Anderson)
Hoary Alyssum
Hoary Alyssum
Berteroa incana
Hoary Alyssum
Hoary Alyssum
Raceme elongates with new flowers as plump hairy seed pods form. 10-28" high
Hoary Alyssum Leaf
Hoary Alyssum
Stem leaves linear with grayish down, no stalk. Flowers in rounded cluster.
Smooth Rockcress
Smooth Rockcress
Boechera laevigata (Arabis laevigata)
Smooth Rockcress
Smooth Rockcress
Stem erect, stem leaves long, narrow, curling. Basal leaves obovate
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New Jersey Tea*
Ceanothus americanus
New Jersey Tea leaf
New Jersey Tea*
Leaf elliptical, veins prominent. Flowers tiny.
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Buttonbush*
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush leaf
Buttonbush*
Leaf stalked, glossy-green top. Flower head long-stalked.
Mouse-ear Chickweed
Mouse-ear Chickweed
Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare
Mouse-ear chickweed leaf
Mouse-ear Chickweed
Short plant. Leaves opposite, stalkled, fine hair. Flowers - 5 cleft petals
White Chicory
Chicory - white flower type
Cichorium intybus
Basal leaf
Chicory - white flower type
Basal leaf long with sharp dentations, stalked.
Chicory Stem leaf
Chicory
Stem leaf short, stalkless with clasping auricle; may have fine teeth.
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Enchanter's Nightshade
(Broadleaf Enchanter's Nightshade)

Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis
enchanter's Nightshade leaf
Enchanter's Nightshade
Leaves opposite, long stalks, shallow teeth.
Enchanter's Nightshade plant
Enchanter's Nightshade
Flowers small, 2-parted, long stalks on 12-24" unbranched spike
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Virgin's Bower
(Sprawling vine)
Clematis virginiana
Virgin's Bower leaf
Virgin's Bower
Leaves 3-parted, opposite, leaf stalks twining. Flowers perfect or dioecious
Bastard Toadflax
Bastard Toadflax
Comandra umbellata
Bastard Toadflax plant
Bastard Toadflax
Plant short, erect. Flowers in flattened clusters. Leaves alternate, smooth.
Lily of the Valley
Lily of the Valley
Convallaria majalis
Lily of the Valley plant
Lily of the Valley
Leaves basal, usually 2. Flowers 5-15 on scape, nodding, fragrant.
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Gray Dogwood*
Cornus racemosa
Gray dogwood leaf
Gray Dogwood*
leaf opposite, no teeth. Less moist areas.
Gray dogwood fruit
Gray Dogwood*
Drupes turn white in Fall with red stalks. Not edible.
Red Osier dogwood
Redosier Dogwood*
(Stems red Fall to Spring.)
Cornus sericea
Red Osier Dogwood leaf
Redosier Dogwood*
Leaf opposite, no teeth, whitish beneath, fine hair on top.
Redosier dogwood fruit
Redosier Dogwood*
Drupes turn whitish-lead color with pale red stalks, not edible
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White Prairie Clover
Dalea candida
White Prairie Clover leaf
White Prairie Clover
Leaf pinnate, 5-9 short leaflets
Wild Yam Root
Wild Yamroot
Dioscorea villosa
Wild Yamroot
Wild Yamroot
Twining stems, tiny dioecious flowers. Upper stem leaves long-stalked
Wild Yanmroot pod
Wild Yamroot
Seeds in inflated papery capsule, 3-sectioned, 2 seeds per section.
Daisy Fleabane
Annual Fleabane
(Eastern Daisy Fleabane)

Erigeron annuus
Daisy Fleabane leaf
Annual Fleabane
(Eastern Daisy Fleabane)
Leaf toothed, not clasping, stem hair standing out
Annual Fleabane Phyllaries
Annual Fleabane
Phyllaries in 2 to 3 series, sparsely hairy, sometimes glandular.
Philadelphia Fleabane
Philadelphia Fleabane
(Common Fleabane)
Erigeron philadelphicus
Common Fleabane leaf
Philadelphia Fleabane
(Common Fleabane)
Upper leaves clasping stem, stem hairy.
Philadelphia Fleabane phyllaries
Philadelphia Fleabane
Phyllaries - 2 to 3 series, with or without fine hair, sometimes glandular
Lesser Daisy Fleabane
Lesser Daisy Fleabane
Erigeron strigosus
Lesser Daisy Fleabane leaf
Lesser Daisy Fleabane
(Prairie Fleabane)
leaf- few teeth, not clasping, stem hair close to stem.
Lesser Daisy Fleabane Phyllaries
Lesser Daisy Fleabane
(Prairie Fleabane)
Phyllaries in 2 to 4 series with or without fine hair.
Fringed black bindweed
Fringed Black Bindweed
Fallopia cilinodis
(Polygonum cilinode)
fringed black bindweed leaf
Fringed Black Bindweed
Leaves well spaced, heart-shape base, underside fine hair, long slender stalk
Fringed black bindweed ocrea
Fringed Black Bindweed
Clockwise twining vine to 7', stem reddish. Ocrea with fine down-pointing bristles
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Queen of the Meadow
Filipendula ulmaria
Queen of the Meadow leaf
Queen of the Meadow
Leaf - 2-4 pair of lateral leaflets, terminal leaflet has 3-7 lobes.
Virginia Strawberry
Virginia Strawberry
Fragaria virginiana
Virginia Strawberry leaf
Strawberry - Virginia: Flower stalk shorter than leaves. Leaflets stalked. Tip tooth shorter
Virginia Strawberry fruit
Strawberry - Virginia: Seeds embedded in pits.
Woodland Strawberry
Woodland Strawberry
Fragaria vesca
Woodland Strawberry leaf
Strawberry - Woodland: Flower stalk above leaves. Leaflets often stalkless. Tip tooth broad.
Woodland Strawberry fruit
Strawberry - Woodland: Seeds raised on surface.
Galax
Galax
(Beetleweed)
Galax urceolata
Cleavers
Cleavers
(Stickywilly)
Galium aparine
Cleavers Leaf
Cleavers
(Stickywilly)
Weak stems, few branches, fine clinging hooks, flowers in leaf axils. Leaves whorl 6
Rough Bedstraw
Bedstraw - Rough
Galium asprellum
Rough Bedstraw
Bedstraw - Rough
stems -Many branches, stems prickly on the 4 angles, leaves whorl of 6 -rough. Flower cluster much branched.
Northern Bedstraw
Northern Bedstraw
Galium boreale
Seed pod oblong, 2-celled, hairy.
Northern Bedstraw leaf
Northern Bedstraw
Leaves whorls of 4, on multiple stems from root. Stem erect to 3', not sticky
Northern Bedstraw plt
Northern Bedstraw
Flowers in showy terminal panicle, each branch into 3 forked clusters of flowers.
Shining Bedstraw
Bedstraw - Shining
Galium concinnum. Photo Christopher Noll, Wisconsin Flora
Shining Bedstraw
Bedstraw - Shining
Leaves whorls of 6, rough edged, sharply pointed, many branches, sprawling. Photo ©Merel R. Black, Wisconsin Flora
Threelobed bedstraw
Bedstraw - Threelobed
Galium trifidum
3-lobe flowers in triplets. leaves ALL whorls of 4
Fragrant Bedstraw
Bedstraw - Fragrant
Galium triflorum
Fragrant Bedstraw Leaf
Bedstraw - Fragrant
Leaves whorls of 6, vanilla odor, 3-flower clusters. Stem nodes smooth.
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White Avens
Geum canadense
White Avens lower leaf
White Avens
Lower leaves with 3 to 5 toothed leaflets. Upper smaller, 3 leaflets or just 3 lobes.
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Cow Parsnip
Heracleum maximum
Cow Parsnip
Small flowers in compound flat-topped umbel. Stem 3 to 8' high
Cow Parsnip Leaf
Cow Parsnip Leaf
3-parted toothed leaflets, up to 2 feet wide, forming a sheath at the base
Dame's Rocket White flower
Dame's Rocket-white
(Sweet Rocket)

Hesperis matronalis
Dame's Rocket Leaf
Dame's Rocket-white
Leaves alternate, lance-shape, toothed. Flowers in loose terminal cluster.
Dame's rocket plant
Dame's Rocket
Plants have pink or white flowers. stem little branched, fine hair, 2-5' high
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Winterberry*
(Black Alder)

Ilex verticillata
Winterberry leaf
Winterberry*
Leaf toothed, hairy under. Flowers in leaf axils.
Winter berry fruit
Winterberry*
Drupes red at maturity, not palatable to humans.
Cream Pea
Cream Pea
Lathyrus ochroleucus
Cream Pea leaf
Cream Pea
Leaf- 3 to 5+pairs leaflets, tendril at tip, green before flowering.
Motherwort
Motherwort
Leonurus cardiaca
Motherwort plant section
Top section of plant, leaves lobed lower on plant.
Motherwort leaf
Motherwort
Lower leaves 5-lobed, middle 3-lobed, upper entire.
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Oxeye Daisy
Leucanthemum vulgare
Oxeye daisy stem
Oxeye Daisy
Stems 8-24", erect, basal leaves more oval, stem leaves stalkless, coarse teeth.
Oxeye daisy phyllaries
Oxeye Daisy
Phyllaries in overlapping series, lanceolate with brown margins near tips.
American Water Horehound flw
American Water Horehound
Lycopus americanus
American waterhorehound plant
American Water Horehound. Leaves opposite, irregular teeth. Flowers 4-lobed in tight clusters in leaf axils.
Northern Bugleweed
Northern Bugleweed
Lycopus uniflorus
Northern Bugleweed Plant top
Northern Bugleweed
Tlowers tiny, 4-lobed but may look like 5 lobes, in tight clusters in leaf axils. To 40"
Northern Bugleweed leaf
Northern Bugleweed
Leaves elliptic, opposite, coarse teeth but less coarse than L. americanus.
White Sweet Clover
White Sweet Clover
Melilotus alba
White Sweet Clover plant
Plants can be 1 to 5 feet tall, much branched. Same plant as Yellow Sweet Clover
Sweet clover leaf
White Sweet Clover
Leaf 3-parted, serrated edges. Terminal leaflet on longer stalk.
Common Moonseed
Canada Moonseed
(Common Moonseed)

Menispermum canadense
Moonseed leaf
Canada Moonseed
Leaf large, broad, ovate, shallowly lobed. Flowers small, bell-shaped.
Wild Mint flowers
Wild Mint
Mentha arvensis
Wild Mint
Wild Mint
To 2-1/2' high, little branching,no flowers on TOP of 4-angled stem.
Wild Mint leaf
Wild Mint
Leaves opposite, stalked, toothed. Flowers pink to white in verticillasters
Partridge Berry
Mitchella repens. Photo Merle R. Black, Wisconsin Flora.
Partridge berry leaf
Partridge Berry
Low growing plant. White flowers are seldom seen in the Garden
Partridge Berry fruit
Partridge Berry
Berries twinned, 8 seeded, not bitter but barely edible. Photo Merle R. Black.
Twoleaf Miterwort
Twoleaf Mitrewort
(Bishop's Cap)

Mitella diphylla
Twoleaf Miterwort
Twoleaf Mitrewort
(Bishop's Cap)

Single pair of almost stalkless 3 to 5 lobed leaves at mid stem
Blunt-leaved Sandwort
Blunt-leaved Sandwort
Moehringia lateriflora
Blunt-leaved Sandwort leat
Blunt-leaved Sandwort
Leaf - oblong, blunt tip, no stalk, less than 1” long, fine hair.
Glade Mallow
Glade Mallow
Napaea dioica
Glade Mallow leaf
Glade Mallow
Lower leaves large, 4 12", deeply cut lobes, upper leaves stalkless.
Glade Mallow
Flowers in many stalked clusters atop a 6 foot+ ridged green stem
Bland Sweet Cicely
Bland Sweet Cicely
Clayton's Sweet-root

Osmorhiza claytonii
Bland Sweet Cicely Leaf
Bland Sweet Cicely
Leaf 2x pinnately divided, surfaces hairy, stem hairy, hairy bracts below flowers.
Bland Sweet Cicely plant
Bland Sweet Cicely
Plant 1 -3 feet high, hairy, branching, stem base reddish.
Anise Root
Aniseroot
(Smooth Sweet Cicely)

Osmorhiza longistylis
Anise Root Leaf
Aniseroot
Leaf 2x pinnately divided, underside veins have whitish hair.
Aniseroot
Plant 2 to 4 foot, some branching, smooth or with hair. Stem reddish.
Grass of Parnassus
Grass of Parnassus
Parnassia glauca
grass of parnassus leaves
Grass of Parnassus
Leaves all basal. Petals with green veins, sepals small and hidden
Wild Quinine flowers
Wild Quinine
(American Feverfew)

Parthenium integrifolium
Wild Quinine plant
Wild Quinine
Tall plant, flowers in flat-topped clusters, 5 tiny ray florets around center disc.
Wild quinine leaf
Wild Quinine
Upper leaves lance shape, alternate, stalkless, lower stalked
Foxglove Beardtongue
Foxglove Beardtongue
(Tall Penstemon)

Penstemon digitalis
leaf
Foxglove Beardtongue
Stalkless leaf, shiny, fine teeth, lance shape. Stem smooth.
Dotted Smartweed
Dotted Smartweed
Persicaria punctata
Dotted Smartweed flower
Dotted Smartweed
Flowers in interrupted fascicles. Leaves 8x long as wide.
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Ninebark*
(Common Ninebark)

Physocarpus opulifolius
Ninebark leaf
Ninebark*
Leaf - resembles Maple leaf, lower ones have 3-5 lobes, upper more rounded.
Ninebark
Ninebark*
Fruit capsules reddish-brown in Fall; each 3 to 5 chambered with reddish-brown shiny seeds.
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Virginia Mountain Mint
Pycnanthemum virginianum
Virginia Mountain Mint plant
Flowers in umbels of 4 or more flowers. Corollas have purple spots inside.
Virginia Mountain mint leaf
Virginia Mountain Mint
Plant is 1 - 3 feet tall, small opposite lance shape leaves, sweetly aromatic.
Blackberry
Allegheny Blackberry*
Rubus allegheniensis
Allegheny Blackberry leaf
Allegheny Blackberry*
Lower leaves - 5 long-stalked leaflets. Glandular hair on leaf & flower stalks.
Blackberry fruit
Allegheny Blackberry*
Berries turn red then black, not easily separated from torus, edible. Stiff thorns.
Dewberry
Dewberry*
(Northern Dewberry)

Rubus flagellaris
Dewberry leaf
Dewberry*
Short upland plant, usually prostrate, small stem prickles, leaf-3-parted.
Dewberry fruit
Dewberry*
Berries 1/2 - 3/4" long, fruit separates with torus attached, edible
Wild Red Raspberry
Wild Red Raspberry*
Rubus idaeus
Wild red raspberry leaf
Wild Red Raspberry*
Leaf on new canes 5 - 7 lobed, on old canes 3 - 5 lobes. New stems with fine glandular prickles
Wild red raspberry fruit
Wild Red Raspberry*
Berry red, edible, easily separates from torus. Flower similar to R. occidentalis
Black Raspberry
Black Raspberry*
Rubus occidentalis
Black Raspberry leaf
Black Raspberry*
Leaf - 3-part on flowering stems, 5-part on new canes. No glandular hair anywhere
Black Raspberry fruit
Black Raspberry*
Berry to 1/2", separated cleanly from torus, burns red then purple-black, edible.
Thimbleberry
Thimbleberry
(Flowering Raspberry)
Rubus parviflorus
Thimbleberry
Thimbleberry - leaf
(Flowering Raspberry)
No prickles, leaves large and maple-like
Thimbleberry fruit
Thimbleberry
Berry reddish-orange, hemispheric shape, fuzzy, edible but not tasty.
Dwarf Red Raspberry
Dwarf Red Raspberry
Rubus pubescens
Dwarf Red Raspberry leaf
Dwarf Red Raspberry
Leaf with 3 parts, sharp teeth, long hairy stalk. Short plant of moist areas.
Dwarf red raspberry fruit
Dwarf Red Raspberry
Red berry to 1/2", separates from torus with difficulty. Edible.
Swamp Blackberry
Swamp Blackberry
Rubus semisetosus. Photo Merel R. Black, Wisconsin Flora
Canada Elderberry
Canada Elderberry*
(American Black Elderberry)

Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis
Canada Elderberry leaf
Canada Elderberry*
Leaf - 5 to 9 leaflets, serrate edge, flower cluster flat-topped. Multiple stems to 10'
Canada Elderberry fruit
Canada Elderberry*
Drupes 1/4", reddish then purplish-black. Edible with boiling.
Soapwort
Bouncing Bet -white flower
(Soapwort)

Saponaria officinalis
Soapwort leaf
Bouncing Bet
Leaf - opposite, elongated ovals, smooth, wavy, 3-5 prominent veins.
Starry Campion
Starry Campion
Silene stellata
(AKA - Widowsfrill)
Starry Campion leaf
Starry Campion
Flowers with fringed petal lobes; panicle to 20", middle stem leaves whorls of 4
Starry Campion Bract
Starry Campion
Bract under the panicle. One pair of opposite leaves below this, then whorls of 4.
Black Nightshade
Black Nightshade
Solanum nigrum
black nightshade leaf
Black Nightshade
Leaves ovate to diamond shape, dull, a few teeth that resemble lobes
Black Nightshade fruit
Black Nightshade
Berry 1/4". black at maturity, sepals prominent. Plant - 6-24" high.
Meadowsweet
Meadowsweet*
(Long-leaved Meadowsweet)

Spiraea alba
Meadowsweet plant
Meadowsweet*
(Long-leaved Meadowsweet)
Top section of shrub, leaves lanceolate, toothed.
Long-leaved Chickweed
Long-leaved Chickweed
(Water chickweed)

Stellaria longifolia
long leaf chickweed leaves
Long-leaved Chickweed
(Water chickweed)
Plant section and leaves.
Wolfberry
Wolfberry
Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook.
Wolfberry leaf
Wolfberry
Leaf - smooth, wavy edge, short green stalk, underside blue-green.
Wolfberry fruit
Wolfberry
Drupe to 3/8", waxy surface, tightly clustered, not palatable.
Foam Flower
Foamflower
(Heartleaf Foamflower)

Tiarella cordifolia
Foamflower Plant
Foamflower
Leaves all basal, heart-shape base, 5 to 7 lobes, stalks have glandular hair.
White Clover
White Clover
Trifolium repens L.
White Clover leaf
White Clover
Leaves 3-parted on long stalks. Light colored chevron may not be always visible.
Garden Valerian
Valerian, Garden
Valeriana officinalis
Garden Valerian leaf
Valerian, Garden
Leaf- opposite, 7 to 25 leaflets, aromatic
White vervain flower
White Vervain
Verbena urticifolia
White vervain
White Vervain
Flowers tiny on wildly spreading branches. Stems to 6', 4-angled with hair.
White Vervain leaf
White Vervain
Leaf opposite, lance-like, toothed, fine vein pattern
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Culver's Root
Veronicastrum virginicum
Culver's root flw sq
Culver's Root
Small tubular flowers in dense spike, usually branched, atop tall stem.
Culver's root leaf
Culver's Root
Leaves in a whorl of 3 to 7, widely spaced, usually hairless.
Southern Arrowwood flower
Southern Arrowwood*
Viburnum dentatum
Southern Arrowwood leaf
Southern Arrowwood*
Leaves opposite, sharp coarse teeth, stalked, tips pointed to rounded.
southern arrowwood fruit
Southern Arrowwood*
Drupes to 1/4", bluish-black at maturity, bitter, single seed. Multiple stems


Flowers Yellow to yellowish.

Swamp Beggartick
Swamp Beggartick
(Purple-stem Beggartick)

Bidens connata
Swamp Beggartick leaf
Swamp Beggartick
Leaf simple, toothed, lance-shape, some with winged stalks; lower leaves may be 3-cleft.
Swamp beggartick phyllaries
Swamp Beggartick
6-9 yellow-grn phyllaries w/pointed tips. 2-6+ green calyculi below. No ray florets
Devils Beggartick
Devil's Beggartick
Bidens frondosa
Devil's Beggartick leaf
Devil's Beggartick
Leaf divided in 3 to 5 lance-shape leaflets, coarsely toothed; upper may be undivided.
Devils Beggartick phyllaries
Devil's Beggartick
6-12 pale green phyllaries w/5-10 hairy spreading calyculi below. Ray florets obscure.
Stiff Coreopsis
Stiff Tickseed
(Stiff Coreopsis)

Coreopsis palmata
Stiff Coreopsis leaf
Stiff Tickseed
Stem stiff; leaf- opposite, stalkless, 3 elongated lobes that divide above the base.
Stiff Coreopsis phyllaries
Stiff Tickseed
8 broad pale yellow phyllaries appressed w/9-12+ narrow green calyculi below.
Narrowleaf Hawksbeard
Narrowleaf Hawksbeard
Crepis tectorum
Narrowleaf Hawksbeard
Narrowleaf Hawksbeard
Phyllaries - 12-15, whitish pointed tips, bases keeled, hairy. 6-12 calyculi below.
Narrowleaf hawksbeard plant
Narrowleaf Hawksbeard
Plant to 40" high, stem angled, hairy, with milky juice.
Narrowleaf hawksbeard leaf
Narrowleaf Hawksbeard
Basal leaves (shown) narrow with auricles and teeth. Stem leaves stalkless.
Bush Honeysuckle
Northern Bush Honeysuckle*
Diervilla lonicera
Bush Honeysuckle leaf
Northern Bush Honeysuckle*
Leaves opposite, flowers in small panicle at stem tip. Some flowers pink.
Yellow Avens
Yellow Avens
Geum aleppicum
Yellow Avens leaf
Yellow Avens
Lower leaf with 2 - 6 pairs leaflets all sparsely hairy, upper leaf smaller, fewer leaflets.
Stiff Sunflower
Stiff Sunflower
Helianthus paucilflorus
Stiff Sunflower Leaf
Stiff Sunflower
Leaves opposite, lanceolate, ascending, widely spaced on stem. Disc florets reddish
phyllaries
Stiff Sunflower
Phyllaries 25-35, pointed, not spreading, margins with fine hair
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Smooth Oxeye
Heliopsis helianthoides var. scraba
Smooth Oxeye leaf
Smooth Oxeye
Stalked flowers from axils of stalked toothed leaves with rough surface hair.
Smooth Oxeye Phyllaries
Phyllaries - 2 series, outer longer, inner broader, usually with fine hair.
Yellow Day Lily
Yellow Day Lily
Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus
Common St. Johnswort
Common St. Johnswort
Hypericum perforatum
Common St. Johnswort plant
Common St. Johnswort
Shrubby branching stems, narrow leaves with dots, flower with 3 styles.
Great St. Johnswort
Great St. Johnswort
Hypericum pyramidatum
Great St. Johnswort
Great St. Johnswort
Erect, 2-5’ tall, flowers 1.5” to 2.3” wide, long stalked and usually solitary.
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Yellow Flag Iris
(Pale Yellow Iris)

Iris pseudacorus
Wild Lettuce
Wild Lettuce
Lactuca canadensis
Wild Lettuce leaf
Wild Lettuce - leaf
Leaves vary from entire, toothed, to pinnately divided, but edges NOT spiny
Wild Lettuce - leaf
Upper leaves entire, clasping auricles but edges NOT spiny
Prickly Lettuce
Prickly Lettuce
Lactuca serriola
Prickly Lettuce leaf
Prickly Lettuce
Leaf- prickles on edge and under on midrib, clasping auricles
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Canada Lily
Lilium canadense
Canada Lily
Canada Lily
Flowers pendant on branched array. Leaves in whorls.
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Fringed Loosestrife
Lysimachia ciliata
Fringed Loosestrife leaf
Fringed Loosestrife
Leaves opposite - not in whorl, lanceolate, fine hair on stem leaf node.
Moneywort
Moneywort
(Creeping Jenny)

Lysimachia nummularia
Moneywort leaf
Moneywort
(Creeping Jenny)

Creeping plant. Flowers solitary from leaf axil.
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Whorled Loosestrife
Lysimachia quadrifolia
Whorled Loosestrife leaf
Whorled Loosestrife
Leaves in whorl of 4 or 5, flowers with fleshy red nectary in center
Swamp Candles
Swamp Candles
(Yellow Loosestrife)
Lysimachia terrestis
Swamp Candles Leaf
Swamp Candles
(Yellow Loosestrife)
Leaf - mostly stalkless, smooth, dotted
Tufted Loosestrife
Tufted Loosestrife
A wetland plant
Lysimachia thyrsiflora
Tufted Loosestrife plant
Tufted Loosestrife
Flowers in thyrses, leaves opposite, surfaces dotted. Wetland plant
Black Medick
Black Medick
Medicago lupulina
Black Medick
Black Medick
Flowers in dense 1/3" cluster. Leaves 3-parted. Plant scraggly.
Yellow Sweet clover
Yellow Sweet Clover
Melilotus officinalis
Yellow Sweet Clover leaf
Yellow Sweet Clover
Leaf- 3 parted, middle leaflet on longer stalk. Same leaf as White Sweet Clover
Yellow Sweet Clover plant
Yellow Sweet Clover
Plant 1 to 5' high, much branched. Same plant as White Sweet Clover
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Prairie Sundrops
(Meadow Evening Primrose)

Oenothera pilosella
Prairie Sundrops leaf
Prairie Sundrops
Leaves opposite, short stalks, hairy both sides and margins.
Slender Yellow Woodsorrel
Slender Yellow Woodsorrel, Oxalis dillenii
Seed pod stalk horizontal, 1-2 flowers per cluster. (Photo Merle R. Black)
Common yellow oxalis
Common Yellow Oxalis
Oxalis stricta
AKA - Yellow Woodsorrel
Common oxalis pod
Common Yellow Oxalis
Seed pod stalk ascending, pod erect. 3-4 flowers per cluster.
Prairie Ragwort
Prairie Ragwort
Packera plattensis
Prairie Ragwort leaf
Prairie Ragwort
Upland plant. Leaves with lobes or crenations.
Clammy Ground Cherry
Clammy Ground Cherry
Physalis heterophylla
clammy Ground Cherry leaf
Clammy Ground Cherry
Leaf ovate, wavy marginal teeth or entire, densely hairy.
Clammy Groundcherry pod
Clammy Ground Cherry
Seeds in inflated hairy husk, closed at tip, brown at maturity.
Silver Cinquefoil
Silver Cinquefoil
Potentilla argentea. Photo Kitty Kohout, Wisconsin Flora
Silver Cinguefoil leaf
Silver Cinquefoil
Flower petals same size as sepals. Leaves under silvery from fine hairs. Photo Kitty Kohout, Wisconsin Flora
Rough cinquefoil
Rough Cinquefoil
Potentilla norvegica
AKA - Norwegian Cinquefoil.
Rough Cinquefoil leaf
Rough Cinquefoil
Leaves ALL 3-parted, hairy, upper almost stalkless.
Rough Cinquefoil plant
Rough Cinquefoil
Flower sepals longer than petals. Stem 1-3' high, branched near top.
Rough fruited cinquefoil
Rough-fruited Cinquefoil
Potentilla recta
Rough-fruited Cinquefoil
Rough-fruited Cinquefoil
Base leaves of 5-7 leaflets, upper 3 leaflets. Sepals shorter than petals.
Rough fruited cinquefoil plant
Rough-fruited Cinquefoil
Plant 16-32" high, unbranched below inflorescence.
Common Cinquefoil
Common Cinquefoil
Potentilla simplex
Common Cinquefoil leaf
Common Cinquefoil
Decumbent stems, reddish with age. Stem leaf has 5 leaflets.
Tall Buttercup
Tall Buttercup
Ranunculus acris
Tall Buttercup leaf
Tall Buttercup
Lower leaves divided into 3 to 7 parts with deep clefts
Kidneyleaf Buttercup
Kidneyleaf Buttercup
Littleleaf Buttercup

Ranunculus abortivus
Basal leaf
Kidneyleaf Buttercup basal leaf
Littleleaf Buttercup
Unique basal leaves - kidney shape on long stalks.
Kidneyleaf buttercup stem leaf
Kidneyleaf Buttercup
Stem leaves have 3 to 5 lobes, usually stalkless.
Kidneyleaf buttercup plant
Kidneyleaf Buttercup
Plant 8 - 20" high, branched, can tolerate standing water.
Swamp Buttercup
Swamp Buttercup
(Hispid Buttercup)

Ranunculus hispidus var. nitidus
Swamp Buttercup Leaf
Swamp Buttercup
Basal leaf - the largest, 3 parts, each part divided. Upper leaves more simple
Hooked Crowfoot
Hooked Crowfoot
(Blisterwort)

Ranunculus recurvatus
Hooked Crowfoot Leaf
Hooked Crowfoot
Leaves much the same shape, stalked, stem leaf smaller. White hair on stem.
Hooked Crowfoot plant
Hooked Crowfoot
Stem 8 to 24" high, occasionally branched, purplish appendages at base.
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Long-headed Coneflower
(Prairie Coneflower)

Ratibida columnifera
Prairie Coneflower leaf
Long-headed Coneflower
Leaf stalked, 3 to 14 lobes, gland-dotted.
Black eyed susan
Black-eyed Susan
Rudbeckia hirta
Black-eyed Susan leaf
Black-eyed Susan
Stem Leaf - linear to spatula shape, rough white bristly hair, stalkless at top of stem
Black-eyed Susan Phyllaries
Black-eyed Susan
Phyllaries - 2 series, linear, quite long, very hairy, outer ones reflex.
Rosinweed
Wholeleaf Rosinweed
(Rosin-weed)

Silphium integrifolium
Rosinweed leaf
Wholeleaf Rosinweed -leaf
(Rosin-weed) Leaves opposite, not surrounding the stem, upper & lower same size.
Rosinweed phyllaries
Wholeleaf Rosinweed
Phyllaries in 2-3 series, pointed spreading tips, smooth or hairy.
Dandelion
Common Dandelion
Taraxacum officinale
Dandelion basal leaves
Common Dandelion
Leaves all basal, long, pinnately divided, terminal lobe larger, stalk with wings.
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Meadow Goatsbeard
Yellow Goatsbeard

Tragopogon pratensis
leaf
Meadow Goatsbeard
Upper leaf short, clasping; lower backward curved.
Goatsbeard seed
Meadow Goatsbeard
Yellow Goatsbeard

Distinctive Tragopogon seed cluster
Mullein
Common Mullein
Verbascum thapsus
Mullein
Common Mullein
Leaves velvety arranged in spiral pattern, hooked hair on underside.
Mullein plant
Common Mullein
Stem 6-8' high, multiple spikes on some plants. Flowers open in spiral pattern.
Golden Alexander
Golden Alexanders
(Golden Zizia)

Zizia aurea
Golden alexanders leaf
Golden Alexanders
Basal leaves 2-3 times divided on long stalks.


Flowers yellow-green, gray-green, green.

Thimbleweed
Candle Anemone (Long-fruited Thimbleweed)
Anemone cylindrica
Thimbleweed leaf
Thimbleweeds
Both Thimbleweeds have similar basal and stem leaves.
Tall Thimbleweed
Tall Thimbleweed
Anemone virginiana
Tall thimbleweed bracts
Tall Thimbleweed has secondary bracts midway up on flower stalk
Wild Sarsaparilla
Wild Sarsaparilla
Aralia nudicaulis
Wild sarsaparilla
Wild Sarsaparilla
Flowers in rounded umbels, usually 3, on separate leafless stem from the root.
Wild Sarsaparilla leaf
Wild Sarsaparilla
Usually 3 leaves of 3-5 leaflets each, flower stem separate from base. Fruit is bluish-black drupe.
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Jack-in-the-pulpit
Arisaema triphyllum
Jack-in-pulpoit
Jack-in-the-pulpit
3-parted leaf, facing upward. Spathe rises beneath leaves from basal leaf sheath.
Jack-in-pulpit fruit
Jack-in-the-pulpit
Fruit cluster red at maturity, remains after leaves die. Not edible fresh.
Canadian Milk Vetch
Canadian Milk Vetch
Astragalus canadensis
milkvetch leaf
Canadian Milk Vetch
Leaf compound, 15-35 leaflets, smooth edges, pointed tips on leaflets.
Smooth Rockcress
Smooth Rockcress
Boechera laevigata (Arabis laevigata)
Smooth Rockcress
Smooth Rockcress
Stem erect, stem leaves long, narrow, curling. Basal leaves obovate
Bittersweet
Climbing Bittersweet*
(American Bittersweet)

Celastrus scandens
Climbing Bittersweet leaf
Climbing Bittersweet*
(American Bittersweet)
Leaves oval, smooth, sharp teeth
bittersweet fruit
Climbing Bittersweet*
Fruit capsules brownish-orange, opens to 3 section red berry, not edible.
dodder flowers
Common Dodder
(Parasitic - no leaves)
Cuscuta gronovii
Dodder
Common Dodder
Many similar species. White petals, yellow-green calyx
Wild Yam Root
Wild Yamroot
Dioscorea villosa
Wild Yamroot
Wild Yamroot
Twining stems, tiny dioecious flowers. Upper stem leaves long-stalked
Wild Yanmroot pod
Wild Yamroot
Seeds in inflated papery capsule, 3-sectioned, 2 seeds per section.
Water Horsetail strobilus
Water Horsetail
Equisetum fluviatile
Waterhorsetail
Water Horsetail
Ancient plant - spore producing strobilus atop unbranched stem.
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Leafy Spurge
Euphorbia virgata
leafy spurge leaf
Leafy Spurge
Leaves mostly linear with a whorl under the inflorescence.
Alumroot
Alumroot
Heuchera americana var. hirsuticaulus
Alumroot flowers
Alumroot
Hypanthium inflated 3 to 7.2 mm above the ovary and weakly bilaterally symmetric.
Alumroot basal leaves
Alumroot
To 3' tall. Stalked basal leaves only, stalks dense with stipitate-glandular hair
Wood Nettle
Wood Nettle
(Canadian Wood Nettle)

Laportea canadensis
Wood Nettle Leaf
Wood Nettle
Leaf- alternate, long-stalk, oval. coarse teeth, upper surface crinkled dk green
Lesser Duckweed
Lesser Duckweed
Lemna minor
AKA - Common Duckweed
lesser Duckweed root
Lesser Duckweed
Each frond has single root dangling under. Plants usually in clusters up to 5+
Peppergrass raceme
Peppergrass- green flowered
Lepidium densiflorum
Peppergrass plant
Peppergrass.
Dense spike, flowers w/no petals or petals shorted than sepals. Pods oval, notched.
Pepper grass leaf
Peppergrass.
Leaf toothed, not clasping, lower may be pinnate. Thin short hair on 8-20" stem
Commopn Plantain
Common Plantain
Plantago major L.
common plantain
Common Plantain
Flowers tiny on spike. Leaves in basal rosette.
Solomon's Seal flower
Great Solomon's Seal
(Smooth Solomon's Seal)

Polygonatum biflorum
Solomon's seal
Great Solomon's Seal
Stems arching, unbranched, flowers pendant, leaves stalkless
Solomon's seal berries
Great Solomon's Seal
Berries 14/"+, dark blue to black, pendant, not edible.
fragrant sumac
Fragrant Sumac*
Rhus aromatica
fragrant Sumac Leaf
Fragrant Sumac*
Leaf has 3 stalked leaflets variable in shape, aromatic when crushed.
Fragrant sumac
Fragrant Sumac*
Drupes to 1/4" densely hairy. Not edible without special preparation.
Smooth Sumac
Smooth Sumac*
Rhus glabra
Smooth Sumac Twig
Smooth Sumac*
Twigs smooth & spotted, no hair. Flower cluster more open than Staghorn.
Smooth sumac leaf
Smooth Sumac*
Leaf - 11-31 leaflets; leaf rachis without hair. Stems 10-15' high.
smooth sumac fruit
Smooth Sumac*
Drupes red, hairy, 1/8 to 1/4" diameter. Not edible without special preparation.
Staghorn Sumac
Staghorn Sumac*
Rhus hirta
Staghorn Sumac twig
Staghorn Sumac*
Twigs with dense fine hair. Flower cluster more closed than Smooth Sumac.
Staghorn sumac leaf
Staghorn Sumac*
Leaf - 9-29 leaflets, rachis with hair. Stems to 35' when growing as a tree.
Staghorn sumac fruit
Staghorn Sumac*
Drupes red at maturity, hairy, 1/8 to 1/4" diameter. Not edible without special preparation.
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Curly Dock
Rumex crispus
Curly dock leaf
Curly Dock
Leaves lance-shape, curly but smooth edge, dull green.
Broadleaf Burweed
Broadleaf Burweed
Sparganium eurycarpum. Photo Josh Sulman, Wisconsin Flora
Tall Meadowrue
Tall Meadow Rue
(Purple Meadow Rue)

Thalictrum dasycarpum
Male flowers shown.
Tall Meadow Rue
Tall Meadow Rue
3-5' tall, plants dioecious, flowers in compound panicle of many branches.
Tall meadow rue leaf
Tall Meadow Rue
Stem leaves sparse, stalkless, hairy beneath, longer than wide.
Poison Ivy Flower
Poison Ivy
(Western Poison Ivy)
Toxicodendron rydbergii
Poison Ivy leaf
Poison Ivy
(Western Poison Ivy)
Leaf- 3 widely oval leaflets with pointed tip, hairless, shiny dark green, bronze when new.
Poison Ivy fruit
Poison Ivy
Berry dull ivory in Fall with red leaves if in full sun. All toxic.


Flowers blue, bluish and bluish-pink

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Blue Giant Hyssop
(Anise Hyssop)
Agastache foeniculum
Blue giant hyssop
Blue Giant Hyssop
Flower calyx blue to purplish, corolla lighter, verticillaster arrangement
Anise Hyssop leaf
Blue Giant Hyssop
Leaf opposite, triangular, upper leaves more narrow. Anise scent when crushed.
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Leadplant
Amorpha canescens
leadplant leaf

Leaf pinnate, 13-25 pairs leaflets, gray hair underside.
Eastern Bluestar
Eastern Bluestar
Amsonia tabernaemontana
Bluestar leaf
Eastern Bluestar
Leaves narrow and pointed, deep green.
False Blue Indigo
False Blue Indigo
(Blue Wild Indigo)

Baptisia australis
False Blue Indigo Leaf
False Blue Indigo
Leaf tri-foliate. Leaflets with blunt tip, smooth edges.
False Blue Indigo
False Blue Indigo
Pods black at maturity, held upright, inflated, kidney shape brown seeds.
Downy Woodmint
Downy Wood Mint
Blephilia cilata
Downy Wood Mint leaf
Downy Wood Mint
Leaf- upper lance shape, lower ovate, coarse teeth, fine hair on edge and under, aromatic.
Hairy Wood Mint
Hairy Wood Mint
(Hoary Wood Mint)
Blephilia hirsuta
Hairy Wood Mint leaf
Hairy Wood Mint
Leaf - More egg shaped, a few coarse teeth, hairy surfaces and margin, long hair on stem
Bristly Bellflower
Bristly Bellflower
(Bristly Bluebells)
Campanula cervicaria
bristly Bellflower stem
Bristly Bellflower
Flowers in separated clusters on hairy stem, stem leaves narrow lance shape, wavy, hairy.
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European Bellflower
(Rampion Bellflower)
Campanula rapunculoides
European Bellflower leaf
European Bellflower
Lower leaves stalked, heart-shape base, upper stalkless.
Tall Bellflower
Tall Bellflower
(American Bellflower)

Campanulastrum americanum
Tall Bellflower spike
Tall Bellflower
Flowers in tall spike, pale nectar ring in center. Stem not branched.
tall bellflower leaf
Tall Bellflower
Upper leaves lance-shape, lower oval, toothed edges
Chicory
Chicory - blue flower type
Cichorium intybus
Basal leaf
Chicory - Blue flower type
Basal leaf long with sharp dentations, stalked.
Chicory Stem leaf
Chicory
Stem leaf short, stalkless with clasping auricle; may have fine teeth.
Fringed Willowherb
Fringed Willowherb
Epilobium ciliatum ssp. glandulosum
(American Willowherb - leaves oval to lance-like)
Willowherb
Willowherb
Epilobium coloratum
Willowherb leaf
Willowherb
Leaf oblong, toothed edges, sometimes purplish in Autumn
Virginia Waterleaf
Virginia Waterleaf
(Eastern Waterleaf)
Hydrophyllum virginianum
Virginia Waterleaf
Virginia Waterleaf
Leaves stalked, 3 - 7 lobes, larger have tip and base lobes separated.
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Blue Flag Iris
Iris versicolor
Wild Lupine
Wild Lupine
Lupinus perennis
Wild Lupine leaf
Wild Lupine
Leaves divided into 7 - 11 leaflets, smooth edges,
Forget-me-not
True Forget-me-not
Myosotis scorpioides
forget-me-not leaf
True Forget-me-not
Stems thin, leaf stalkless, one center vein, hair on margins.
Silvery Scurf Pea
Silvery Scurf Pea
Pediomelum argophyllum
Silvery Scurf Pea leaf
Silvery Scurf Pea
Leaf - 3 to 5 leaflets with whitish appressed hair.
Wild Blue Phlox
Wild Blue Phlox
Phlox divaricata
Wild Blue Phlox leaf
Wild Blue Phlox
Leaves opposite, sparse, clasping, fine hair, no teeth.
Jacob's Ladder
Jacob's Ladder
(Greek Valerian)

Polemonium reptans
Jacob's Ladder leaf
Jacob's Ladder
Plant under 20 inches high, leaf- 7-17 leaflets, smooth edges, frequently reclining.
Marsh Skullcap
Scutellaria galericulata.
Petals curved. (Photo Aaron Carlson)
Marsh Skullcap
Flowers mostly solitary from leaf axils. Leaves barely stalked. 6-32" high. (photo Chris Noll)
Mad dog skullcap
Mad Dog Skullcap
Scutellaria lateriflora
(Blue Skullcap) Petals barely curved. (Photo Chris Noll)
Mad dog skullcap plant
Mad Dog Skullcap
Flowers in racemes from leaf axils, leaves stalked, stem 12-28" high. (Photo Chris Noll)
Soederwort
Bluejacket
(Ohio Spiderwort)
Tradescantia ohiensis
Bluejacket plant
Bluejacket
Leaves flat, sheath at stem.
Swamp Vervain
Blue Vervain
(Swamp Vervain)
Verbena hastata
Blue Vervain leaf
Blue Vervain
Leaf lance-like, coarse teeth, underside with whitish hair, lower leaves have a pair of basal lobes.
Prairie Birdsfoot Violet
Prairie Birdsfoot Violet
Viola pedatifida
Photo Christopher Noll, Wisconsin Flora
Prairie violet leaf
Prairie Birdsfoot Violet
Leaf pinnately divided. Stemless. Flower bearded with white throat patches.


Flowers pink, pinkish, rosy, pink-purplish, deep purple.

Wild Garlic
Wild Garlic
Allium canadense
Wild Garlic
Wild Garlic
Flowering begins when pale sheath opens. Not all bulbils will flower.
Wild Garlic
Wild Garlic
Leaves rise from stem base, are flat with a keel. Flowering scape to 24" high.
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Leadplant
Amorpha canescens
leadplant leaf

Leaf pinnate, 13-25 pairs leaflets, gray hair underside.
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Wild Ginger
(Canadian Wild Ginger)

Asarum canadense
Wild Ginger leaf
Wild Ginger
Leaves - 2 per plant, hairy stalks and underside, up to 6” wide. Stem prostrate.
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Swamp Milkweed
Asclepias incarnata
Swamp Milkweed Leaf
Swamp Milkweed
Leaves stalkless to clasping, smooth both sides. Flower umbel erect.
Swamp Milkweed
Swamp Milkweed
Slender pods held erect on erect stalks. Brown at maturity.
Common Milkweed
Common Milkweed
Asclepias syriaca
Common Milkweed leaf
Common Milkweed
Leaves ovate, hairy underside, prominent rib. Umbel nodding.
Common Milkweed
Common Milkweed
Pods held erect on downward curving stalks. Warty exterior.
Downy Woodmint
Downy Wood Mint
Blephilia cilata
Downy Wood Mint leaf
Downy Wood Mint
Leaf- upper lance shape, lower ovate, coarse teeth, fine hair on edge and under, aromatic.
Hairy Wood Mint
Hairy Wood Mint
(Hoary Wood Mint)
Blephilia hirsuta
Hairy Wood Mint leaf
Hairy Wood Mint
Leaf - More egg shaped, a few coarse teeth, hairy surfaces and margin, long hair on stem
spotted knapweed flower
Spotted Knapweed
Centaurea stoebe
Photos Merle R. Black, Wisconsin Flora
Spotted Knapweed
Spotted Knapweed
Leaves deeply lobed, phyllaries with black tips.
Fireweed
Fireweed
Chamerion angustifolium
Fireweed.
Fireweed
Stem erect 4-6' high; Leaves 5x long as wide, smooth, almost stalkless.
Fireweed Leaf
Fireweed
Lateral veins join a loop vein on leaf margin.
Canada thistle plant
Canada Thistle
Cirsium arvense
Canada Thistle leaf

Deep indentations on leaf, hard needle-like prickles on margins. Stem 1-4' high.
Canada thistle
Canada Thistle
Flw. head to 1/2” wide, phyllaries tightly appressed, spreading tips, no spines.
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Showy Lady's-slipper
Cypripedium reginae
Showy Lady's slipper plant
Showy Lady's-slipper
Flowers 1 to 3 on hairy 2' stems. Leaves numerous - clasp stem.
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Purple Prairie Clover
Dalea purpurea
Purple Prairie Clover
Purple Prairie Clover
Leaf compound, small, 3-9 leaflets with gland dots.
Pointed leaf ticktrefoil flower
Pointed-leaved Ticktrefoil
Desmodium glutinosum
Pointed leaf tick trefoil
Pointed-leaved Ticktrefoil
Leaves in cluster on upper stem, 3-parted, leaflets oval, with pointed tip. Stem 1-4' high
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Pointed-leaved Ticktrefoil
Inflorescence tall, branched, the whorl-like leaf cluster is at inflorescence base.
Bush Honeysuckle pink
Northern Bush Honeysuckle*
Diervilla lonicera
(Most flowers are yellow.)
Bush Honeysuckle leaf
Northern Bush Honeysuckle*
Leaves opposite, flowers in small panicle at stem tip.
Grecian Foxglove
Grecian Foxglove
Digitalis lanata
Grecian Foxglove
Grecian Foxglove
Leaves linear with hair near purplish stem.
Willowherb
Willowherb
Epilobium coloratum
Willowherb leaf
Willowherb
Leaf oblong, toothed edges, sometimes purplish in Autumn
Eastern Wahoo Flower
Eastern Wahoo*
Euonymus atropurpureus
Eastern Wahoo plant
Eastern Wahoo*
Leggy shrub, flower clusters tiny, rising from the leaf axils. Leaves oblong, fine teeth.
Wahoo Seed capsule
Eastern Wahoo*
Mature capsules red, to 1/2" wide. 3 or 4 lobes. Beautiful but toxic.
Queen of the Prairie
Queen of the Prairie
Filipendula rubra
Queen of the prairie leaf
Queen of the Prairie
Leaf -up to 7 separated lobed leaflets on reddish stem, terminal leaflet with 7-9 lobes.
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Wild Geranium
(Spotted Geranium)

Geranium maculatum
Wild Geranium leaf
Wild Geranium
Basal leaves palmately divided, 5 - 7 lobes. Pair small leaves on flower stem.
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Dame's Rocket
(Sweet Rocket)

Hesperis matronalis
Dame's Rocket Leaf
Dame's Rocket
Leaves alternate, lance-shape, toothed. Flowers in loose terminal cluster.
Dame's rocket plant
Dame's Rocket
Plants have pink or white flowers. stem little branched, fine hair, 2-5' high
Veiny Pea
Veiny Pea
(Veiny Vetchling)

Lathyrus venosus
Veiny pea leaf
Veiny Pea
Leaf 8 to 12 leaflets with tendril, leaflets asymmetric.
Veiny Pea leaf Stipule
Veiny Pea
Leaf stipule 2-lobed, arrow shape, clasps stem, 2 lobes only.
Veiny pea
Veiny Pea
Pods resemble garden peas, but flat, not inflated.
Motherwort
Motherwort
Leonurus cardiaca
Motherwort plant section
Top section of plant, leaves lobed lower on plant.
Motherwort leaf
Motherwort
Lower leaves 5-lobed, middle 3-lobed, upper entire.
Wild Mint flowers
Wild Mint
Mentha arvensis
Wild Mint
Wild Mint
To 2-1/2' high, little branching,no flowers on TOP of 4-angled stem.
Wild Mint leaf
Wild Mint
Leaves opposite, stalked, toothed. Flowers pink to white in verticillasters
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Heartleaf Four O'clock
(Wild Four O'clock)
Mirabilis nyctaginea
Wild Four O'clock leaf
Heartleaf Four O'clock
Leaves paired, oval, heart-shape base. Flowers above a star-shaped cup.
Purple Bergamot
Purple Bergamot
Monarda media
Purple Bergamot
Purple Bergamot
Leaves opposite, stalked, grayish-green, triangular base.
Showy Beardtongue
Showy Beardtongue
(Large-flowered Beardtongue)

Penstemon grandiflorus
Showy Beardtongue leaf
Showy Beardtongue
Leaves opposite, stalkless to clasping, thick fleshy, waxy look.
Downy Phlox
Downy Phlox
Phlox pilosa
Downy Phlox leaf
Downy Phlox
Leaves less than 1/2” wide, stems with fine whitish hair, flowers in branched clusters.
Prickly Rose
Prickly Rose*
Rosa acicularlis
Prickly Rose Stem
Prickly Rose*
Stems branched, densely prickled near base, leaflets 5-9, flowers solitary.
Arkansas Rose
Prairie Wild Rose*
Rosa arkansana
Arkansas Rose leaf
Prairie Wild Rose*
9-11 leaflets, many lower stem prickles, little branching, flws in clusters of 2-3
Smooth Rose
Smooth Rose*
Rosa blanda
Smooth Rose leaf
Smooth Rose*
5-7 leaflets, few stem prickles, short plant, branched, flws usually in clusters.
Pasture Rose
Pasture Rose*
(Carolina Rose)
Rosa carolina
Pasture Rose bud
Pasture Rose*
Glandular hair on sepals and flower stalks. Leaflets 5 to 7(9), unbranched, flws solitary
Climbing Rose
Climbing Rose*
Rosa setigera
Climbing Rose leaf
Climbing Rose*
Leaf of 3 leaflets, stems arching, vine-like, flws in clusters.
Woods Rose
Wood's Rose*
Rosa woodsii
Wood's Rose olf stem
Wood's Rose*
Tallest rose, stems reddish, curved prickles (not dense), leaflets 5-9, flws 1 or 1-3
Bouncing Bet
Bouncing Bet -Pink flower type
(Soapwort)
Saponaria officinalis
Soapwort leaf
Bouncing Bet
Leaf - opposite, elongated ovals, smooth, wavy, 3-5 prominent veins.
Lance-leaf figwort
Lanceleaf Figwort
Scrophularia lanceolata
Lanceleaf figwort
Lanceleaf Figwort
Stems with flat sides, erect, flowers in open widely branched panicle.
Lanceleaf Figwort leaf
Lanceleaf Figwort
Leaves stalked, lance-shaped, dbl-tooth margins, base never heart-shaped
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Climbing Nightshade
(Bittersweet Nightshade)

Solanum dulcamara
Climbing Nightshade leaf
Climbing Nightshade
Leaf - 1 large terminal lobe and 2 to 4 smaller lobes. Stalk forms a small wing.
Climbing Nightshade berry
Climbing Nightshade
berries red at maturity, 1/4", toxic to children. Vine without tendrils
Snowberry
Snowberry*
Symphoricarpos albus
Snowberry leaf
Snowberry*
Leaves opposite, simple, oval, blunt ends. Flowers in cluster at twig tip.
Snowberry fruit
Snowberry*
Drupes white, round to 3/8", waxy surface. Not palatable.
Bracted spiderwort
Bracted Spiderwort
Tradescantia bracteata
(Leaves flat, linear, 8-10x long as wide.)
bracted spiderwort stem
Bracted Spiderwort
2 long green leaf-like bracts spread horizontal under flowers. Stem 8-24" high.
Red Clover
Red Clover
Trifolium pratense
Red Clover leaf
Red Clover
leaf 3-parted, blunt oval shape, hairy edges, lighter color chevron, large stipule.
Hoary Vervain
Hoary Vervain
Verbena stricta
Hoary Vervain leag
Hoary Vervain
Leaf - sharp coarse teeth, short stalk, underside with fine whitish hair.
American Vetch
American Vetch
Vicia americana
American Vetch leaf
American Vetch
Leaf - 8-16 leaflets, 1 - 3 branching tendrils at leaf tip.
American Vetch leaf stipule
American Vetch
Stipule pairs pointed with 3 sharp teeth in middle of each
American Vetch pod
American Vetch
Pods resemble garden pea pods but flat with 2+ brown seeds.


Flowers reddish, orangish and brownish

Columbine
Wild Columbine
(Red Columbine)
Aquilegia canadensis
Columbine leaf
Wild Columbine
Leaves divided into 3-leaflet groups, each leaflet cleft at tips.
Common Dodder
Common Dodder
Cuscuta gronovii
dodder flowers
Common Dodder
Parasitic - no leaves. Many similar species. White petals, yellow-green calyx
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Orange Day Lily
Hemerocallis fulva
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Orange Hawkweed
Hieracium aurantiacum
Orange hawkweed leaf
Orange Hawkweed
Leaves all basal, elongated, no lobes or teeth, very hairy.
Orange Hawkweed phyllaries
Orange Hawkweed
13=30 phyllaries in 2 series, hairy, some glandular.
Michigan Lily
Michigan Lily
Lilium michiganense
Michigan Lily sepals
Michigan Lily
Flowers pendant from tall stem, no green star inside throat, stamens diverge widely close to throat.
Michigan Lily leaf
Michigan Lily
Leaves in whorls; L. superbum 3-9+ per whorl, L. michiganense 3-7.
Wood Lily
Wood Lily
Lilium philadelphicum
Wood Lily
Wood Lily
Leaf whorl at top of stem, most leaves alternate below.
Turk's Cap Lily
Turk's-cap Lily
Lilium superbum
Turk's-cap Lily sepals
Turk's-cap Lily Lily
Flowers pendant from tall stem, green star inside throat, stamens together, spreading near anthers.
Turk's- ap Lily leaf
Turk's-cap Lily
Leaves in whorls; L. superbum 3-9+ per whorl, L. michiganense 3-7.
Flame Azalea
Flame Azalea*
Rhododendron calendulaceum
Flame Azalea leaf
Flame Azalea*
Leaves elliptical, thick, leathery, dark green
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Horse Gentian
Triosteum perfoliatum
horse gentian plant
Horse Gentian
Leaves egg shape, appear connected at stem. Flowers in leaf axils.
Horse Gentian fruit
Horse Gentian
Drupes 1/3 to 1/2" with sepals persistent.
Narrowleaf Cattail
Narrow-leaved Cattail
(Gap between brown flw sections)
Typha angustifolia
Cattail
Common Cattail
(Broadleaf Cattail)

(No gap between brown flw sections)
Typha latifolia

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graphic Garden Plant Photo Identification Booklet