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Late Spring Flowers of Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

Presented by The Friends of the Wild Flower Garden


Wild Geranium

Thumbnails of some of the late spring flowering plants that you may encounter on a visit - Early May to Mid-June. This page should keep you going until mid-June, then everything in the Upland breaks loose. Alternate common names for plant are shown in ( ), woody plants designated by "*". Timing of spring bloom will vary with each year's weather pattern.
Plant names with web links lead to a separate page of plant information and photos on that plant.
Images are arranged by six color categories and then by scientific name within color. Plants listed on our Common and Scientific name list that are not currently found in the Garden are not listed below.
Printable PDF File in Scientific Name Order within Color. Prints at 11 high by 8.5 inches wide, 20 images per page, 23 pages total: Low resolution - 4.2mb - - - Hi resolution 31.2mb. Best for printing.


Flowers white and whitish

White Baneberry
White Baneberry
Flowers in pyramidal cluster
Actaea pachypoda
White baneberry fruit
White Baneberry
Berry stalks thick and red. Toxic.
Red Baneberry
Red Baneberry
Flowers in more domed cluster
Actaea rubra
Red Baneberry leaf
Baneberry leaf
Much the same on both species.
Red Baneberry red fruit
Red Baneberry
Red berry form, berry stalks thin, not red. Toxic.
Red Baneberry white fruit type
Red Baneberry
White berry form, berry stalks thin, not red. Toxic.
Garlic Mustard
Garlic Mustard
Alliaria petiolata
Garlic Mustard leaf
Garlic Mustard
Leaves with heart-shape base, coarse teeth. Flowers in terminal spikes.
Garlic mustard plants
Garlic Mustard
Plants can be 4 inches to 6' high. Biennial. First year is a leaf rosette.
Saskatoon Serviceberry
Saskatoon Serviceberry*
Amelanchier alnifolia
Saskatoon Service berry leaf
Saskatoon Serviceberry*
Leaf- teeth in the upper half, no hair at flowering, rounded tip.
Saskatoon fruti
Saskatoon Serviceberry*
Pomes to 1/2", fleshy, red to purple-black, edible.
Downy Juneberry
Downy Juneberry*
Amelanchier arborea
Downy Juneberry leaf
Downy Juneberry*
Leaf has fine teeth, bronze and hairy at flowering time, pointed tip.
Downy serviceberry fruit
Downy Juneberry*
Pomes to 3/8", fleshy, with 8 - 10 seeds, edible
Canada Anemone
Canada Anemone
Anemone canadensis
Canada Anemone leaf
Canada Anemone
Upper stem leaves stalkless, basal look the same, but on long stalks.
Wood Anemone
Wood Anemone
Anemone quinquefolia
Field Pussytoes
Field Pussytoes
Antennaria neglecta
Black Chokeberry
Black Chokeberry*
Aronia melanocarpa
(Photinia melanocarpa)
Black Chokeberry leaf
Black Chokeberry*
Leaf cluster near end of twig; Fine teeth; midrib has stiff red glands.
Black Chokeberry fruti
Black Chokeberry*
Pomes purplish-black, to 1/3", juicy astringent, edible after cooking.
Smooth Rockcress
Smooth Rockcress
Boechera laevigata (Arabis laevigata)
Smooth Rockcress
Smooth Rockcress
Stem erect, stem leaves long, narrow, curling. Basal leaves obovate
Wild Calla
Wild Calla
(Water Arum)

Calla palustris
Wild Calla fruit
Wild Calla
Fruit reddish, toxic when fresh. Flower stalk single, shorter than leaves
Cut-leaf Toothwort
Cut-leaved Toothwort
Cardamine concatenata
Cut-leaved Toothwort leaf
Cut-leaved Toothwort
Stem leaves divided into 3 deeply lobed toothed leaflets such that they appear to be 5 lobed leaflets.
Two-leaved Toothwort
Two-leaved Toothwort
Cardamine diphylla
Two-leaved Toothwort
Two-leaved Toothwort
Stems have two leaf stalks, opposite, leaves with 3 lobes, not so deeply cut.
Pennsylvania Bittercress
Bittercress
(Pennsylvania Bitter Cress)
Cardamine pensylvanica.
Bittercress leaf
Bittercress
Terminal leaflet largest. Stem leaf shown. Lower leaf has wider leaflets.
Mouse-ear Chickweed
Mouse-ear Chickweed
Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare
Mouse-ear chickweed leaf
Mouse-ear Chickweed
Short plant. Leaves opposite, stalked, fine hair. Flowers - 5 cleft petals
Virginia Spring Beauty
Spring Beauty - Virginia
Claytonia virginica L.
Spring Beauty plant
Spring Beauty - Virginia
Flowers in loose cluster. Basal leaves long & narrow. One pair per stem.
Bastard Toadflax
Bastard Toadflax
Comandra umbellata
Bastard Toadflax plant
Bastard Toadflax
Plant short, erect. Flowers in flattened clusters. Leaves alternate, smooth.
Lily of the Valley
Lily of the Valley
Convallaria majalis
Lily of the Valley plant
Lily of the Valley
Leaves basal, usually 2. Flowers 5-15 on scape, nodding, fragrant.
Pagoda Dogwood
Pagoda Dogwood*
(Alternate-leaf Dogwood)

(Flowers - flat-top clusters)
Cornus alternifolia
Pagoda dogwood leaf
Pagoda Dogwood*
Leaf alternate, ovate, glossy, prominent veins. Branches tiered like a temple.
Pagoda dogwood fruit
Pagoda Dogwood*
Drupes 1/4", dark blue, stalks reddish, not edible. Flowers in flat-top clusters.
Pale dogwood
Pale Dogwood*
(found in moist areas)
Cornus obliqua
Pale dogwood leaf
Pale Dogwood*
Leaves opposite, stalks with fine hair, pale underside, multi-stem, 3 to 10'
Pale dogwood fruit
Pale Dogwood*
Drupes 1/3",= dark blue, green stalks, not edible. Flowers in branched cluster
Red Osier dogwood
Redosier Dogwood*
(Stems red Fall to Spring.)
Cornus sericea
Red Osier Dogwood leaf
Redosier Dogwood*
Leaves opposite, entire, whitish beneath, fine hair on top.
Redosier dogwood fruit
Redosier Dogwood*
Drupes turn whitish-lead color with pale red stalks, not edible
False Rue Anemone
False Rue Anemone
Enemion biternatum
False Rue Anemone leaf
False Rue Anemone
Flowers rise from leaf axils. Leaves 2-3 parted. Early Spring bloom.
Daisy Fleabane
Annual Fleabane
(Eastern Daisy Fleabane)

Erigeron annuus
Daisy Fleabane leaf
Annual Fleabane
(Eastern Daisy Fleabane)
Leaf toothed, not clasping, stem hair standing out
Annual Fleabane Phyllaries
Annual Fleabane
Phyllaries in 2 to 3 series, sparsely hairy, sometimes glandular.
Philadelphia Fleabane
Philadelphia Fleabane
(Common Fleabane)
Erigeron philadelphicus
Common Fleabane leaf
Philadelphia Fleabane
(Common Fleabane)
Upper leaves clasping stem, stem hairy.
Philadelphia Fleabane phyllaries
Philadelphia Fleabane
Phyllaries - 2 to 3 series, with or without fine hair, sometimes glandular
Lesser Daisy Fleabane
Lesser Daisy Fleabane
Erigeron strigosus
Lesser Daisy Fleabane leaf
Lesser Daisy Fleabane
(Prairie Fleabane)
leaf- few teeth, not clasping, stem hair close to stem.
Lesser Daisy Fleabane Phyllaries
Lesser Daisy Fleabane
(Prairie Fleabane)
Phyllaries in 2 to 4 series with or without fine hair.
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White Troutlily
(White Fawn Lily)

Erythronium albidum
Virginia Strawberry
Virginia Strawberry
Fragaria virginiana
Virginia Strawberry leaf
Strawberry - Virginia: Flower stalk shorter than leaves. Leaflets stalked. Tip tooth shorter
Virginia Strawberry fruit
Strawberry - Virginia: Seeds embedded in pits.
Woodland Strawberry
Woodland Strawberry
Fragaria vesca
Woodland Strawberry leaf
Strawberry - Woodland: Flower stalk above leaves. Leaflets often stalkless. Tip tooth broad.
Woodland Strawberry fruit
Strawberry - Woodland: Seeds raised on surface.
Galax
Galax
(Beetleweed)
Galax urceolata
Cleavers
Cleavers
(Stickywilly)
Galium aparine
Cleavers Leaf
Cleavers
(Stickywilly)
Weak stems, few branches, fine clinging hooks, flowers in leaf axils. Leaves whorl 6
Dame's Rocket White flower
Dame's Rocket-white
(Sweet Rocket)

Hesperis matronalis
Dame's Rocket Leaf
Dame's Rocket-white
Leaves alternate, lance-shape, toothed. Flowers in loose terminal cluster.
Dame's rocket plant
Dame's Rocket
Plants have pink or white flowers. stem little branched, fine hair, 2-5' high
Mountain Laurel
Mountain Laurel*
Kalmia latifolia Jeff McMillian, USDA-NRCS Plants Database
Mountain Laurel
Mountain Laurel*-plant and leaf
Kalmia latifolia
Cream Pea
Cream Pea
Lathyrus ochroleucus
Cream Pea leaf
Cream Pea
Leaf- 3 to 5+pairs leaflets, tendril at tip, green before flowering.
Tatarian Honeysuckle
Tatarian Honeysuckle*
(flowers white to pink)
Lonicera tatarica
False Solomon's Seal
False Solomon's Seal
Maianthemum racemosum
False Solomon's Seal plant section
False Solomon's Seal
Top section of plant. Flowers at tip
False solomon's seal fruit
False Solomon's Seal
Berries red or mottled red in Autumn. Not considered edible.
Starry False Solomon's Seal
Starry False Solomon's Seal
Maianthemum stellatum
Starry False Solomon's Seal leaf
Starry False Solomon's Seal
Leaves alternate, smooth, stalkless. Starry flowers in narrow terminal spike.
Starry False Solomon's seal fruit
Starry False Solomon's Seal
Berry red in Autumn with darker stripes. Not edible. Arching stem to 24" long
Common Moonseed
Canada Moonseed
(Common Moonseed)

Menispermum canadense
Moonseed leaf
Canada Moonseed
Leaf large, broad, ovate, shallowly lobed. Flowers small, bell-shaped.
Partridge Berry
Partridge Berry
Mitchella repens
Photo Merle R. Black, Wisconsin Flora
Partridge berry leaf
Partridge Berry
(Low growing plant. White flowers are seldom seen in the Garden)
Partridge Berry fruit
Partridge Berry
Berries twinned, 8 seeded, not bitter but barely edible. Photo Merle R. Black.
Twoleaf Miterwort
Twoleaf Mitrewort
(Bishop's Cap)

Mitella diphylla
Twoleaf Miterwort
Twoleaf Mitrewort
(Bishop's Cap)

Single pair of almost stalkless 3 to 5 lobed leaves at mid stem
Blunt-leaved Sandwort
Blunt-leaved Sandwort
Moehringia lateriflora
Blunt-leaved Sandwort leat
Blunt-leaved Sandwort
Leaf - oblong, blunt tip, no stalk, less than 1” long, fine hair.
Anise Root
Aniseroot
(Smooth Sweet Cicely)

Osmorhiza longistylis
Anise Root Leaf
Aniseroot
Leaf 2x divided, minor hair. 3-5+ umbellets of 6-16 flowers, styles longer than petals.
Aniseroot
Plant 2 to 4 foot, some branching, smooth or with hair. Stem reddish.
Foxglove Beardtongue
Foxglove Beardtongue
(Tall Penstemon)

Penstemon digitalis
leaf
Foxglove Beardtongue
Stalkless leaf, shiny, fine teeth, lance shape. Stem smooth.
Mock Orange
Mock Orange*
Philadelphus sp.
leaf Mock orange
Mock Orange*
Leaves opposite, light green, flowers in clusters at tips of twigs.
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Mayapple
Podophyllum peltatum
Mayapple
Mayapple leaf. Flowering plants have two leaves. Flower under the leaf.
May Apple Fruit
Apple-like berry 1.4 - 2.2" long, toxic unripe. Ripe fruit should be cooked.
American Plum
Wild Plum*
(American Plum)

Prunus americana
wild plum leaf
Wild Plum* Edge toothed, sharp pointed twigs on branches.
Wild Plum fruit
Wild Plum*
Drupe oblong to 1" diameter, yellow to red at maturity. Edible.
Chokecherry
Chokecherry*
Prunus virginiana
Chokecherry leaf
Chokecherry*
Leaf- Oval, fine teeth, pale under, small glands on leaf stalk.
 Chokecherry fruit
Chokecherry*
Drupes 1/3", deep red to dark purplish black. Edible but pit is toxic.
Blackberry
Allegheny Blackberry*
Rubus allegheniensis
Allegheny Blackberry leaf
Allegheny Blackberry*
Lower leaves - 5 long-stalked leaflets. Glandular hair on leaf & flower stalks.
Blackberry fruit
Allegheny Blackberry*
Berries turn red then black, not easily separated from torus, edible. Stiff thorns.
Dewberry
Dewberry*
(Northern Dewberry)

Rubus flagellaris
Dewberry leaf
Dewberry*
Short upland plant, usually prostrate, small stem prickles, leaf-3-parted.
Dewberry fruit
Dewberry*
Berries 1/2 - 3/4" long, fruit separates with torus attached, edible
Wild Red Raspberry
Wild Red Raspberry*
Rubus idaeus
Wild red raspberry leaf
Wild Red Raspberry*
Leaf on new canes 5 - 7 lobed, on old canes 3 - 5 lobes. New stems with fine glandular prickles
Wild red raspberry fruit
Wild Red Raspberry*
Berry red, edible, easily separates from torus. Flower similar to R. occidentalis
Black Raspberry
Black Raspberry*
Rubus occidentalis
Black Raspberry leaf
Black Raspberry*
Leaf - 3-part on flowering stems, 5-part on new canes. No glandular hair anywhere
Black Raspberry fruit
Black Raspberry*
Berry to 1/2", separated cleanly from torus, burns red then purple-black, edible.
Dwarf Red Raspberry
Dwarf Red Raspberry
Rubus pubescens
Dwarf Red Raspberry leaf
Dwarf Red Raspberry
Leaf with 3 parts, sharp teeth, long hairy stalk. Short plant of moist areas.
Dwarf red raspberry fruit
Dwarf Red Raspberry
Red berry to 1/2", separates from torus with difficulty. Edible.
Swamp Blackberry
Swamp Blackberry
Rubus semisetosus. Photo ©Merel R. Black, Wisconsin Flora
Elderberry
Red Elderberry
Sambucus racemosa
Elderberry leaf
Red Elderberry
Flower cluster domed, leaf with 5 - 7 leaflets, serrate edges. Leaves appear with the flowers.
Red elderberry fruit
Red Elderberry
Drupes small, not palatable to humans. Shrub stems 6 - 12'
Bladdernut
American Bladdernut*
Staphylea trifolia
Bladdernut leaf
American Bladdernut*
Leaf - 3 ovate shiny leaflets, fine teeth, lateral leaflets not stalked
Bladdernut fruit pod
American Bladdernut*
1 - 4 seeds inside inflated 3-angled papery pod. Shrub has multiple stems to 15'.
Foam Flower
Foamflower
(Heartleaf Foamflower)

Tiarella cordifolia
Foamflower Plant
Foamflower
Leaves all basal, heart-shape base, 5 to 7 lobes, stalks have glandular hair.
Nodding Trillium
Nodding Trillium
Trillium cernuum
Noddding Trillium
Nodding Trillium
Flower nods beneath the 3 bracts. Green sepals reflexed backward.
Drooping Trillium
Drooping Trillium
(Nodding Wakerobin)

Trillium flexipes
Drooping Trillium
Drooping Trillium
Flower droops but remains above bracts. Green sepals partly reflexed
Large Flowered Trillium
Large-flowered Trillium
(White Trillium)

Trillium grandiflorum
Large Flowered Trillium
Large-flowered Trillium
Largest flower of white trilliums, erect, facing outward. Pink with age.
Southern Arrowwood flower
Southern Arrowwood*
Viburnum dentatum
Southern Arrowwood leaf
Southern Arrowwood*
Leaves opposite, sharp coarse teeth, stalked, tips pointed to rounded.
southern arrowwood fruit
Southern Arrowwood*
Drupes to 1/4", bluish-black at maturity, bitter, single seed. Multiple stems
Nannyberry
Nannyberry*
Viburnum lentago
Nannyberry leaf
Nannyberry*
Leaf- egg shape, fine teeth, in opposite pairs, stalks reddish with small wings.
Nannyberry fruit
Nannyberry*
Drupes to 1/8", oval, bluish-black, red stalks, not palatable. Stems to 20'
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Highbush Cranberry*
(American Cranberrybush
)
Viburnum opulus var. americanum
(Moist area plant)
Highbush cranberry leaf
Highbush Cranberry*
Leaf 3-lobed, coarse teeth, small stalked glands on leaf stalk. Flowers similar to European Cranberry.
Highbush Cranberry*
Drupes to 1/3", deep red in Autumn, acidic but edible.
European Cranberrybush
European Cranberrybush*
Viburnum opulus
European Cranberry leaf
European Cranberrybush*
Leaf 3-lobed, with a few coarse teeth, small unstalked glands on leaf stalk. Flowers similar to Highbush Cranberry.
European Cranberry fruit
European Cranberrybush*
Drupes to 1/4", deep red in Autumn, not good for cooking. Shrub stems multiple to 10'.
Canada Violet
Canada Violet
Yellow tinting at petal base
Viola canadensis
Canada Violet leaf
Canada Violet
Leaves basal & stem, heart shape base, veins patterned. Basal on long stalks.


Flowers Yellow to yellowish.

Marsh Marigold
Marsh Marigold
(Cowslip)

Caltha palustris
Marsh Marigold leaf
Marsh Marigold
Leaves basal & stem, heart shaped, basal on long stalks. Soft hair under
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Yellow Lady's-slipper
Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens
Bush Honeysuckle
Northern Bush Honeysuckle*
Diervilla lonicera
Bush Honeysuckle leaf
Northern Bush Honeysuckle*
Leaves opposite, flowers in small panicle at stem tip. Some flowers pink.
Yellow Trout-lily
Yellow Troutlily
(Dogtooth Violet)

Erythronium americanum
Yellow Day Lily
Yellow Day Lily
Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus
Tufted Loosestrife
Tufted Loosestrife
A wetland plant
Lysimachia thyrsiflora
Tufted Loosestrife plant
Tufted Loosestrife
Flowers in thyrses, leaves opposite, surfaces dotted. Wetland plant
Golden Ragwort
Golden Ragwort
Packera aurea
Golden Ragwort leaf
Golden Ragwort
Wetland plant. Leaves lobed, lower leaves longer and larger
Prairie Ragwort
Prairie Ragwort
Packera plattensis
Prairie Ragwort leaf
Prairie Ragwort
Upland plant. Leaves with lobes or crenations.
Common Cinquefoil
Common Cinquefoil
Potentilla simplex
Common Cinquefoil leaf
Common Cinquefoil
Decumbent stems, reddish with age. Stem leaf has 5 leaflets.
Kidneyleaf Buttercup
Kidneyleaf Buttercup
Littleleaf Buttercup

Ranunculus abortivus
Basal leaf
Kidneyleaf Buttercup basal leaf
Littleleaf Buttercup
Unique basal leaves - kedney shape on long stalks.
Kidneyleaf buttercup stem leaf
Kidneyleaf Buttercup
Stem leaves have 3 to 5 lobes, usual;ly stalkless.
Kidneyleaf buttercup plant
Kidneyleaf Buttercup
Plant 8 - 20" high, branched, can tolerate standing water.
Tall Buttercup
Tall Buttercup
Ranunculus acris
Tall Buttercup leaf
Tall Buttercup
Lower leaves divided into 3 to 7 parts with deep clefts
Swamp Buttercup
Swamp Buttercup
(Hispid Buttercup)

Ranunculus hispidus var. nitidus
Swamp Buttercup Leaf
Swamp Buttercup
Basal leaf - the largest, 3 parts, each part divided. Upper leaves more simple
Hooked Crowfoot
Hooked Crowfoot
(Blisterwort)

Ranunculus recurvatus
Hooked Crowfoot Leaf
Hooked Crowfoot
Leaves much the same shape, stalked, stem leaf smaller. White hair on stem.figcaption.
Hooked Crowfoot plant
Hooked Crowfoot
Stem 8 to 24" high, occasionally branched, purplish appendages at base.
Missouri Gooseberry flower
Missouri Gooseberry*
Ribes missouriense
Missouri Gooseberry leaf
Missouri Gooseberry*
Leaf - 3 to 5 palmate toothed lobes. Base straight to slightly heart-shaped.
Missouri Gooseberry frt
Missouri Gooseberry*
Berry turns from green to dull reddish-purple, without prickles.
Wood Poppy
Wood Poppy
Stylophorum diphyllum
Wood Poppy leaf
Wood Poppy
Leaves - rounded lobes, deeply divided, pinnatifid, most basal.
Dandelion
Common Dandelion
Taraxacum officinale
Dandelion basal leaves
Common Dandelion
Leaves all basal, long, pinnately divided, terminal lobe larger, stalk with wings.
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Meadow Goatsbeard
Yellow Goatsbeard

Tragopogon pratensis
leaf
Meadow Goatsbeard
Upper leaf short, clasping; lower backward curved.
Goatsbeard seed
Meadow Goatsbeard
Yellow Goatsbeard

Distinctive Tragopogon seed cluster
Yellow Trillium
Yellow Trillium
(Yellow Wakerobin)

Trillium luteum
Some flowers will be yellow-green in color.
Large Flowered Bellwort
Large-flowered Bellwort
Uvularia grandiflora
Large-flowered Bellwort
Large-flowered Bellwort
Leaves pierced by stem, flower stem nods downward. Tepals twisted.
Yellow Violet
Downy Yellow Violet
Viola pubescens
Downy Yellow Violet leaf
Downy Yellow Violet
Flower solitary from upper leaf axil. Leaves basal and stem.
Golden Alexanders
Golden Alexanders
(Golden Zizia)

Zizia aurea
Golden alexanders leaf
Golden Alexanders
Basal leaves 2-3 times divided on long stalks.


Flowers yellow-green, gray-green, green.

Thimbleweed
Thimbleweed
Anemone cylindrica
Thimbleweed leaf
Thimbleweed
Both Thimbleweeds have similar basal and stem leaves.
Tall Thimbleweed
Tall Thimbleweed
Anemone virginiana
Tall thimbleweed bracts
Tall Thimbleweed has secondary bracts midway up on flower stalk
Wild Sarsaparilla
Wild Sarsaparilla
Aralia nudicaulis
Wild Sarsaparilla leaf
Wild Sarsaparilla
Usually 3 leaves of 3-5 leaflets each, flower stem separate from base. Fruie is bluish-black drupe.
Wild sarsaparilla
Wild Sarsaparilla
Flowers in rounded umbels, usually 3, on separate leafless stem from the root.
Jack-in-pulpit
Jack-in-the-pulpit
Arisaema triphyllum
Jack-in-pulpoit
Jack-in-the-pulpit
3-parted leaf, facing upward. Spathe rises beneath leaves from basal leaf sheath.
Jack-in-pulpit fruit
Jack-in-the-pulpit
Fruit cluster red at maturity, remains after leaves die. Not edible fresh.
Blue Cohosh
Blue Cohosh
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Blue Cohosh leaf
Blue Cohosh
Leaf - 3 to 4 3-parted sections, each section with 3 parts (27 leaflets per leaf)
Blue Cohosh fruit
Blue Cohosh
Berries fleshy, 1/3" blue to very dark blue with bloom. Not edible.
Bittersweet
Climbing Bittersweet*
(American Bittersweet)

Celastrus scandens
Climbing Bittersweet leaf
Climbing Bittersweet*
(American Bittersweet)
Leaves oval, smooth, sharp teeth
bittersweet fruit
Climbing Bittersweet*
Fruit capsules brownish-orange, opens to 3 section red berry, not edible.
Sweet Fern plant
Sweet Fern*
Comptonia peregrina
Sweet Fern
Sweet Fern*
Leaves long, narrow, lobed, gland-dotted, plant monoecious. Female flower shown.
Sweet Fern seed
Sweet Fern*
Nutlets ovoid, 1/4" long, shiny brown.
American Hazelnut male catkins
American Hazelnut*
(Male Catkins)
Corylus americana
American Hazelnut female flowers
American Hazelnut*
(Female flowers)
Male flowers in hanging catkins, female is small buds - both before the leaves.
American Hazelnut leaf
American Hazelnut*
Leaves oval, double-toothed, dark green, pale under, hairy stiff stalk
American Hazelnut fruit
American Hazelnut*
1/2" edible brown nut develops in hairy husk, 2 to 5 per cluster
Running Strawberry Bush
Running Strawberry Bush
Euonymus obovata. Creeping woodland ground cover. Photo John Zaborsky, Wisconsin Flora
Running Strawberry fruit
Running Strawberry Bush
Pale green 1/3" flowers from leaf axils. Fruit pink. Photo Greg Vaclavek, Wisconsin Flora
Water Horsetail strobilus
Water Horsetail
Equisetum fluviatile
Waterhorsetail
Water Horsetail
Ancient plant - spore producing strobilus atop unbranched stem.
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Leafy Spurge
Euphorbia virgata
leafy spurge leaf
Leafy Spurge
Leaves mostly linear with a whorl under the inflorescence.
Golden Seal
Golden Seal
Hydrastis canadensis
golden seal leaf
Golden Seal
Two stem leaves, upper stalkless, lower stalked below solitary flower.
Golden seal fruit
Golden Seal
Flower without petals. Berries red, short beak, tight cluster, not edible.
Peppergrass raceme
Peppergrass- green flowered
Lepidium densiflorum
Peppergrass plant
Peppergrass.
Dense spike, flowers w/no petals or petals shorted than sepals. Pods oval, notched.
Pepper grass leaf
Peppergrass.
Leaf toothed, not clasping, lower may be pinnate. Thin short hair on 8-20" stem
Swamp Saxifrage
Eastern Swamp Saxifrage
Micranthes pensylvanica [Saxifraga pensylvanica]
Swamp Saxifrage Plant
Eastern Swamp Saxifrage
Hairy lance-shape leaves all basal. Flower stalk with glandular hair, up to 3 feet high.
Lesser Duckweed
Lesser Duckweed
Lemna minor
AKA - Common Duckweed
lesser Duckweed root
Lesser Duckweed
Each frond has single root dangling under. Plants usually in clusters up to 5+
Virginia Creeper
Virginia Creeper*
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Virginia creeper inflorescence.
Virginia Creeper Inflorescence has a central stem with side branches. Berries tiny. Photo Merle R. Black.
Virginia Creeper leaf
Virginia Creeper leaf
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Virginia Creeper pads
Virginia Creeper
Only Creeper has attachment pads
Grape Woodbine
Woodbine*
(Grape Woodbine)

Parthenocissus vitacea
Grape Woodbine Flower Cluster
Woodbine*
Inflorescence has stem split into 2 or 3 branches.
Grape Woodbine leaf
Woodbine*
Leaf more glossty than Virginia Creeper.
Woodbine fruit
Woodbine*
Berries resemble small wild grapes, much larger than those of Virginia Creeper, Stalks reddish
Solomon's Seal flower
Great Solomon's Seal
(Smooth Solomon's Seal)

Polygonatum biflorum
Solomon's seal
Great Solomon's Seal
Stems arching, unbranched, flowers pendant, leaves
Solomon's seal berries
Great Solomon's Seal
Berries 14/"+, dark blue to black, pendant, not edible.
Common Buckthorn
Common Buckthorn*
Rhamnus cathartica
Common Buckthorn leaf
Common Buckthorn
Leaf with marginal teeth, flowers in tight cluster.
Buckthorn berries
Common Buckthorn
Drupes blue-black, 1/4", juicy, 3-4 seeds per drupe. Not edible.
Glossy Buckthorn
Glossy Buckthorn*
Rhamnus frangula
Glossy Buckthorn leaf
Glossy Buckthorn*
Leaf - no marginal teeth. Flowers in loose cluster
Glossy Buckthorn
Glossy Buckthorn*
Drupes green, then reddish, then black, juicy, not palatable.
fragrant sumac
Fragrant Sumac*
Rhus aromatica
fragrant Sumac Leaf
Fragrant Sumac*
Leaf has 3 stalked leaflets variable in shape, aromatic when crushed.
Fragrant sumac
Fragrant Sumac*
Drupes to 1/4" densely hairy. Not edible without special preparation.
Smooth Sumac
Smooth Sumac*
Rhus glabra
Smooth Sumac Twig
Smooth Sumac*
Twigs smooth & spotted, no hair. Flower cluster more open than Staghorn.
Smooth sumac leaf
Smooth Sumac*
Leaf - 11-31 leaflets; leaf rachis without hair. Stems 10-15' high.
smooth sumac fruit
Smooth Sumac*
Drupes red, hairy, 1/8 to 1/4" diameter. Not edible without special preparation.
Staghorn Sumac
Staghorn Sumac*
Rhus hirta
Staghorn Sumac twig
Staghorn Sumac*
Twigs with dense fine hair. Flower cluster more closed than Smooth Sumac.
Staghorn sumac leaf
Staghorn Sumac*
Leaf - 9-29 leaflets, rachis with hair. Stems to 35' when growing as a tree.
Staghorn sumac fruit
Staghorn Sumac*
Drupes red at maturity, hairy, 1/8 to 1/4" diameter. Not edible without special preparation.
American Black Current
American Black Currant*
(Wild Black Currant)

Ribes americanum
American Black Currant Leaf
American Black Currant*
(Wild Black Currant)
Leaf- 3 to 5 toothed lobes, main veins from base. Underside with visible yellow glands.
American black currant fruit
American Black Currant*
Berry ovoid, smooth, thin skin, black at maturity. Edible when cooked.
Prickly Gooseberry
Eastern Prickly Gooseberry*
Ribes cynosbati
Prickly Gooseberry
Eastern Prickly Gooseberry*
Ribes cynosbati
Prickly Gooseberry leaf
Eastern Prickly Gooseberry*
Leaf - 3-5 indented toothed lobes, heart-shaped base, stem and underside hairy.
Prickly gooseberry fruit
Eastern Prickly Gooseberry*
Berry dull reddish at maturity, 1/3", soft prickles, edible.
Garden Currant
Garden Currant*
Ribes rubrum
Leaf similar to Black Currant.
Garden Currant leaf
Garden Currant*
Leaf 3-7 toothed lobes (Mostly 5 lobes), no glands on surface.
Garden Currant fruit
Garden Currant*
Fruit red at maturity, thin skin, juicy, edible. Plant 2 - 4' high.
Upright Carrion Flower
Carrion Flower - Upright
Smilax ecirrhata
Carrion Flower Vine
Carrion Flower - Upright
Erect, no prickles, flowers in ball-like umbel from bracts on stem below leaves
Upright Carrion Flower leaf
Carrion Flower - Upright
Leaves on upper 1/2 to 2/3rds of stem, widely oval.
Upright Carrion Flower Fruit
Carrion Flower - Upright
Berries blue-black at maturity, 3/8", not palatable.
Common Carrion Flower
Smilax lasioneura.
Common Carrion Flower
Carrion Flower - Common
Flowers in long-stalked umbels from the leaf axils. Berries same as upright.
Common Carrion Flower leaf
Carrion Flower - Common
Vining to 7', no prickles, leaves evenly distributed on stem.
Common Carrion flower fruit
Carrion Flower - Common
Berries 3/8", blue-black, not palatable.
Carbrier
Catbrier
(Bristly Greenbrier)
Smilax tamnoides. Photo Emmett J. Judziewicz, Wisconsin Flora.
Broadleaf Burweed
Broadleaf Burweed
Sparganium eurycarpum. Photo Josh Sulman, Wisconsin Flora
Early Meadow Rue
Early Meadow Rue
Thalictrum dioicum
Veiny Meadow Rue
Veiny Meadow Rue
Thalictrum venulosum
Veiny Meadow Rue leaf
Veiny Meadow Rue
Leaves of Early & Veiny similar. Early-flower anthers yellowish, Veiny-more purplish.
Poison Ivy Flower
Poison Ivy
(Western Poison Ivy)
Toxicodendron rydbergii
Poison Ivy leaf
Poison Ivy
(Western Poison Ivy)
Leaf- 3 widely oval leaflets with pointed tip, hairless, shiny dark green, bronze when new.
Poison Ivy fruit
Poison Ivy
Berry dull ivory in Fall with red leaves if in full sun. All toxic.
Yellow trillium
Yellow Trillium
(Yellow Wakerobin)

Trillium luteum
Some flowers more yellow-green in color.
Riverbank Grape
Riverbank Grape*
Vitis riparia
Riverbank Grape leaf
Riverbank Grape*
leaf 3-lobed, coarse teeth, pale green. Young stems yellowish to reddish.
Riverbank grape fruit
Riverbank Grape*
Berries 1/4 - 3/8", whitish bloom on bluish-black. Edible.
Prickly Ash
Prickly-Ash*
Zanthoxylum americanum
Prickly ash leaf
Prickly-Ash*
Leaves pinnate, 5 - 11 leaflets, twigs aromatic with prickles. Thorns on twigs.
Prickly Ash berries
Prickly-Ash*
Seed capsules red at maturity, contain 1 black oily seed.


Flowers blue, bluish and bluish-pink

Eastern Bluestar
Eastern Bluestar
Amsonia tabernaemontana
Bluestar leaf
Eastern Bluestar
Leaves narrow and pointed, deep green.
False Blue Indigo
False Blue Indigo
(Blue Wild Indigo)

Baptisia australis
False Blue Indigo Leaf
False Blue Indigo
Leaf tri-foliate. Leaflets with blunt tip, smooth edges.
False Blue Indigo
False Blue Indigo
Pods black at maturity, held upright, inflated, kidney shape brown seeds.
Creeping Charlie
Ground Ivy

Glechoma hederacea
Ground Ivy leaf
Ground Ivy

Stems creeping. Leaves longstalked, coarse teeth, gland dotted
Virginia Waterleaf
Virginia Waterleaf
(Eastern Waterleaf)

Hydrophyllum virginianum
Virginia Waterleaf
Virginia Waterleaf
Leaves stalked, 3 - 7 lobes, larger have tip and base lobes separated.
Virginia Bluebells
Virginia Bluebells
Mertensia virginica
Virginia Bluebells leaf
Virginia Bluebells
Leaves basal & stem, elliptical, smooth, basal larger & floppy.
Forget-me-not
True Forget-me-not
Myosotis scorpioides
forget-me-not leaf
True Forget-me-not
Stems thin, leaf stalkless, one center vein, hair on margins.
Wild Blue Phlox
Wild Blue Phlox
Phlox divaricata
Wild Blue Phlox leaf
Wild Blue Phlox
Leaves opposite, sparse, clasping, fine hair, no teeth.
Jacob's Ladder
Jacob's Ladder
(Greek Valerian)

Polemonium reptans
Jacob's Ladder leaf
Jacob's Ladder
Plant under 20 inches high, leaf- 7-17 leaflets, smooth edges, frequently reclining.
Blue Squill
Blue Squill
Scilla siberica
Running Myrtle
Common Periwinkle
(Running Myrtle)

Vinca Minor
Common Periwinkle leaf
Common Periwinkle
Creeping stems, leaves glossy, evergreen, flowers solitary.
Prairie Birdsfoot violet
Prairie Birdsfoot Violet
Viola pedatifida. Photo Chris Noll, Wisconsin Flora.
Prairie violet leaf
Prairie Birdsfoot Violet
Leaf pinnately divided. Stemless. Flower bearded with white throat patches.
Common Blue violet
Common Blue Violet
Viola sororia
Common Blue Violet leaf
Common Blue Violet
Stemless, Leaves ovate to heart shape. Lateral petals bearded.
Confederate Violet
Confederate Violet
Viola sororia forma priceana. Considered a color variation - leaf the same.


Flowers pink, pinkish, rosy, pink-purplish, deep purple.

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Wild Ginger
(Canadian Wild Ginger)

Asarum canadense
Wild Ginger leaf
Wild Ginger
Leaves - 2 per plant, hairy stalks and underside, up to 6” wide. Stem prostrate.
Fumewort
Fumewort
Corydalis solida
Fumewort leaf
Fumewort
Leaf pinnate, deeply cleft, dense, terminal lobe with crenations
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Showy Lady's-slipper
Cypripedium reginae
Bush Honeysuckle pink
Northern Bush Honeysuckle*
Diervilla lonicera
(Most flowers are yellow)
Bush Honeysuckle leaf
Northern Bush Honeysuckle*
Leaves opposite, flowers in small panicle at stem tip. Some flowers pink.
Shooting Star
Shooting Star
(Pride of Ohio)

Dodecatheon media
Shooting star plant
Shooting Star
Flowering scape held above basal rosette of oblong leaves.
Eastern Wahoo Flower
Eastern Wahoo*
Euonymus atropurpureus
Eastern Wahoo plant
Eastern Wahoo*
Leggy shrub, flower clusters tiny, rising from the leaf axils. Leaves oblong, fine teeth.
Wahoo Seed capsule
Eastern Wahoo*
Mature capsules red, to 1/2" wide. 3 or 4 lobes. Beautiful but toxic.
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Wild Geranium
(Spotted Geranium)

Geranium maculatum
Wild Geranium leaf
Wild Geranium
Basal leaves palmately divided, 5 - 7 lobes. Pair small leaves on flower stem.
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Dame's Rocket
(Sweet Rocket)

Hesperis matronalis
Dame's Rocket Leaf
Dame's Rocket-white
(Sweet Rocket)

Leaves alternate, lance-shape, toothed. Flowers in loose terminal cluster.
Dame's rocket plant
Dame's Rocket
Plants have pink or white flowers. stem little branched, fine hair, 2-5' high
Foamy Bells
Foamy Bells
xheucherella tiarelloides
Foamy bells leaf
Foamy Bells
Garden hybrid with Foam Flower; more pinkish color. leaves all basal in a clump.
Veiny Pea
Veiny Pea
(Veiny Vetchling)

Lathyrus venosus
Veiny pea leaf
Veiny Pea
Leaf 8 to 12 leaflets with tendril, leaflets asymmetric.
Veiny Pea leaf Stipule
Veiny Pea
Leaf stipule 2-lobed, arrow shape, clasps stem, 2 lobes only.
Veiny pea
Veiny Pea
Pods resemble garden peas, but flat, not inflated.
Motherwort
Motherwort
Leonurus cardiaca
Motherwort plant section
Motherwort
Top section of plant, leaves lobed lower on plant.
Motherwort leaf
Motherwort
Lower leaves 5-lobed, middle 3-lobed, upper entire.
Climbing honeysuckle
Climbing Honeysuckle (Limber Honeysuckle)
Lonicera dioica
Showy Beardtongue
Showy Beardtongue
(Large-flowered Beardtongue)

Penstemon grandiflorus
Showy Beardtongue leaf
Showy Beardtongue
Leaves opposite, stalkless to clasping, thick fleshy, waxy look.
Downy Phlox
Downy Phlox
Phlox pilosa
Downy Phlox leaf
Downy Phlox
Leaves less than 1/2” wide, stems with fine whitish hair, flowers in branched clusters.
Prickly Rose
Prickly Rose*
Rosa acicularlis
Prickly Rose Stem
Prickly Rose*
Stems branched, densely prickled near base, leaflets 5-9, flowers solitary.
Arkansas Rose
Prairie Wild Rose*
Rosa arkansana
Arkansas Rose leaf
Prairie Wild Rose*
9-11 leaflets, many lower stem prickles, little branching, flws in clusters of 2-3
Smooth Rose
Smooth Rose*
Rosa blanda
Smooth Rose leaf
Smooth Rose*
5-7 leaflets, few stem prickles, short plant, branched, flws usually in clusters.
Pasture Rose
Pasture Rose*
(Carolina Rose)
Rosa carolina
Pasture Rose bud
Pasture Rose*
Glandular hair on sepals and flower stalks. Leaflets 5 to 7(9), unbranched, flws solitary
Climbing Rose
Climbing Rose*
Rosa setigera
Climbing Rose leaf
Climbing Rose*
Leaf of 3 leaflets, stems arching, vine-like, flws in clusters.
Woods Rose
Wood's Rose*
Rosa woodsii
Wood's Rose olf stem
Wood's Rose*
Tallest rose, stems reddish, curved prickles (not dense), leaflets 5-9, flws 1 or 1-3
Lance-leaf figwort
Lanceleaf Figwort
Scrophularia lanceolata
Lanceleaf figwort
Lanceleaf Figwort
Stems with flat sides, erect, flowers in open widely branched panicle.
Lanceleaf Figwort leaf
Lanceleaf Figwort
Leaves stalked, lance-shaped, dbl-tooth margins, base never heart-shaped
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Rue Anemone
Thalictrum thalictroides
Rue Anemone Leaf
Rue Anemone
Flowers rise from stem, not from leaf axils. Leaf-like bracts directly under flowers
Red Clover
Red Clover
Trifolium pratense
Red Clover leaf
Red Clover
leaf 3-parted, blunt oval shape, hairy edges, lighter color chevron, large stipule.
Sweet Betsy
Sweet Betsy
Trillium cuneatum
Leaflet to 6" wide, flower to 3" high.
Sweet Betsy
Sweet Betsy
Trillium cuneatum
Sweet Betsy and Toadshade have similar but different size leaves - no leaflet stalks.
Purple Trillium
Trillium erectum
Purple Trillium
Purple Trillium
Flower facing outward, color variable, petals & sepals of equal length.
Prairie Trillium
Prairie Trillium
Trillium recurvatum
Prairie Trillium
Prairie Trillium
Flower erect, petals not spreading, green sepals hang dowward.
Toadshade
Toadshade
Trillium sessile
Leaflets to 3" wide, flower to 1.5" high.
Toadshape
Toadshade
Sweet Betsy
Sweet Betsy and Toadshade have similar but different size leaves - no leaflet stalks.
Wild Oats
Wild Oats
(Sissileleaf Bellwort)

Uvularia sessilifolia
Wild Oats
Wild Oats
Leaves clasp, but don’t pierce stem. Flower solitary, drooping, tepals flare at tip.
American Vetch
American Vetch
Vicia americana
American Vetch leaf
American Vetch
Leaf - 8-16 leaflets, 1 - 3 branching tendrils at leaf tip.
American Vetch leaf stipule
American Vetch
Stipule pairs pointed with 3 sharp teeth in middle of each
American Vetch pod
American Vetch
Pods resemble garden pea pods but flat with 2+ brown seeds.


Flowers reddish, orangish, brown.

Columbine
Wild Columbine
(Red Columbine)

Aquilegia canadensis
Columbine leaf
Wild Columbine
Leaves divided into 3-leaflet groups, each leaflet cleft at tips.
American Hazelnut female flowers
American Hazelnut*
(Female flowers)
Male flowers in hanging catkins, female is small buds - both before the leaves.
American Hazelnut leaf
American Hazelnut*
Leaves oval, double-toothed, dark green, pale under, hairy stiff stalk
American Hazelnut fruit
American Hazelnut*
1/2" edible brown nut develops in hairy husk, 2 to 5 per cluster
Prairie Smoke
Prairie Smoke
(Old Man's Whiskers)

Geum triflorum
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Prairie Smoke
seed head stage
Geum triflorum
Flame Azalea
Flame Azalea*
Rhododendron calendulaceum
Flame Azalea leaf
Flame Azalea*
Leaves elliptical, thick, leathery, dark green
Horse Gentian
Horse Gentian
Triosteum perfoliatum
horse gentian plant
Horse Gentian
Leaves egg shape, appear connected at stem. Flowers in leaf axils.
Horse Gentian fruit
Horse Gentian
Drupes 1/3 to 1/2" with sepals persistent.

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graphic Garden Plant Photo Identification Booklet