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Spring Flowers of Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

Presented by The Friends of the Wild Flower Garden


Dutchman's Breeches

Thumbnails of many early spring flowering plants - April to early May. Alternate common names for plant are shown in ( ), woody plants designated by "*". Timing of early spring bloom can vary a much as 3 to 4 weeks depending on each year's weather pattern. Plant names with web links lead to a separate page of plant information and photos on that plant.
Images are arranged by six color groups and then by scientific name within color. Plants listed on our Common and Scientific name list that are not currently found in the Garden are not listed below.
Printable PDF File in Scientific Name Order within Color. Prints at 11 high by 8.5 inches wide, 20 images per page: Low resolution - 1.3mb. - - - Hi resolution 9.8mb. Best for printing, 9 pages.


Flowers white, whitish, whitish-green

White Baneberry
White Baneberry
Flowers in pyramidal cluster
Actaea pachypoda
Red Baneberry
Red Baneberry
Flowers in domed cluster
Actaea rubra
Red Baneberry leaf
Baneberry leaf
Much the same on both species.
Garlic Mustard
Garlic Mustard
Alliaria petiolata
Garlic Mustard leaf
Garlic Mustard
Leaves with heart-shape base, coarse teeth.
Saskatoon Serviceberry
Saskatoon Serviceberry*
Amelanchier alnifolia
Saskatoon Service berry leaf
Saskatoon Serviceberry*
Leaf- teeth in the upper half, no hair at flowering, rounded tip.
Downy Juneberry
Downy Juneberry*
Amelanchier arborea
Downy Juneberry leaf
Downy Juneberry*
Leaf has fine teeth, bronze and hairy at flowering time, pointed tip.
Sharp-lobed Hepatica
Hepatica
flowers the same, leaves different
Sharpleaf hepatica
Sharp-lobed Hepatica
Anemone acutiloba (Hepatica acutiloba)
Roundleaf Hepatica
Round-lobed Hepatica
Anemone americana (Hepatica triloba)
Wood Anemone
Wood Anemone
Anemone quinquefolia
Field Pussytoes
Field Pussytoes
Antennaria neglecta
Field Pussytoes leaf
Field Pussytoes
Stems prostrate, erect only in flower, leaves wooly, flowers dioecious.
Smooth Rockcress
Smooth Rockcress
Boechera laevigata (Arabis laevigata)
Smooth Rockcress stem
Smooth Rockcress
Stem erect, stem leaves long, narrow, curling. Basal leaves obovate
Wild Calla
Wild Calla
(Water Arum)

Calla palustris
Cut-leaf Toothwort
Cut-leaved Toothwort
Cardamine concatenata
Cut-leaved Toothwort leaf
Cut-leaved Toothwort
Stem leaves divided into 3 deeply lobed toothed leaflets such that they appear to be 5 lobed leaflets.
Two-leaved Toothwort
Two-leaved Toothwort
Cardamine diphylla
Two-leaved Toothwort
Two-leaved Toothwort
Stems have two leaf stalks, opposite, leaves with 3 lobes, not so deeply cut.
Pennsylvania Bittercress
Bittercress
(Pennsylvania Bitter Cress)
Cardamine pensylvanica.
Bittercress
Terminal leaflet largest. Stem leaf shown. Lower leaf has wider leaflets.
Virginia Spring Beauty
Spring Beauty - Virginia
Claytonia virginica L.
Spring Beauty plant
Spring Beauty - Virginia
Flowers in loose cluster. Basal leaves long & narrow. One pair per stem.
Dutchman's Breeches
Dutchman's Breeches
Dicentra cucullaria
Dutchman's Breeches leaf
Dutchman's Breeches
Leaves basal, yellow-green, pinnately divided. Flowering scape above leaves.
Red Osier dogwood
Redosier Dogwood*
(Stems red Fall to Spring.)
Cornus sericea
Red Osier Dogwood leaf
Redosier Dogwood*
Leaves opposite, entire, whitish beneath, fine hair on top.
False Rue Anemone
False Rue Anemone
Enemion biternatum
False Rue Anemone leaf
False Rue Anemone
Flowers rise from leaf axils. Leaves 2-3 parted. Early Spring bloom.
White Trout-lily
White Troutlily
(White Fawn Lily)

Erythronium albidum
Virginia Strawberry
Virginia Strawberry
Fragaria virginiana
Virginia Strawberry leaf
Strawberry - Virginia: Flower stalk shorter than leaves. Leaflets stalked. Tip tooth shorter
Woodland Strawberry
Woodland Strawberry
Fragaria vesca
Woodland Strawberry leaf
Strawberry - Woodland: Flower stalk above leaves. Leaflets often stalkless. Tip tooth broad.
Dame's Rocket White flower
Dame's Rocket-white
(Sweet Rocket)

Hesperis matronalis
Dame's Rocket Leaf
Dame's Rocket-white
(Sweet Rocket)

Leaves alternate, lance-shape, toothed. Flowers in loose terminal cluster.
Twinleaf
Twinleaf
Jeffersonia diphylla
Twinleaf leaf
Twinleaf
Leaf basal, long stalk, 2 opposite leaflets. Flowers on leafless scape. W
Mountain Laurel
Mountain Laurel*-plant and leaf
Kalmia latifolia
Mountain Laurel Plant
Mountain Laurel*-plant
Kalmia latifolia. ©Jeff McMillian, USDA-NRCS Plants Database
Peppergrass
Peppergrass
Lepidium densiflorum. Photo ©©Southwest Environmental Information Network
Tatarian Honeysuckle
Tatarian Honeysuckle*
(flowers white to pink)
Lonicera tatarica
False Solomon's Seal
False Solomon's Seal
Maianthemum racemosum
False Solomon's Seal plant section
False Solomon's Seal
Top section of plant. Flowers at tip
Twoleaf Miterwort
Twoleaf Mitrewort
(Bishop's Cap)

Mitella diphylla
Twoleaf Miterwort
Twoleaf Mitrewort
(Bishop's Cap)

Single pair of almost stalkless 3 to 5 lobed leaves at mid stem
Blunt-leaved Sandwort
Blunt-leaved Sandwort
Moehringia lateriflora
Blunt-leaved Sandwort leat
Blunt-leaved Sandwort
Leaf - oblong, blunt tip, no stalk, less than 1” long, fine hair.
American Plum
Wild Plum*
(American Plum)

Prunus americana
Chokecherry
Chokecherry*
Prunus virginiana
Chokecherry leaf
Chokecherry*
Leaf- Oval, fine teeth, pale under, small glands on leaf stalk.
Elderberry
Red Elderberry
Sambucus racemosa
Elderberry leaf
Red Elderberry
Flower clusteer domed, leaf with 5 - 7 leaflets, serrate edges. Leaves appear with the flowers.
Bloodroot
Bloodroot
Sanguinaria canadensis
Bladdernut
American Bladdernut*
Staphylea trifolia
Bladdernut leaf
American Bladdernut*Leaf - 3 ovate shiny leaflets, fine teeth, lateral leaflets not stalked
Foam Flower
Foamflower
(Heartleaf Foamflower)

Tiarella cordifolia
Foamflower Plant
Foamflower
Leaves all basal, heart-shape base, 5 to 7 lobes, stalks have glandular hair.
Nodding Trillium
Nodding Trillium
Trillium cernuum
Noddding Trillium
Nodding Trillium
Flower nods beneath the 3 bracts. Green sepals reflexed backward.
Drooping Trillium
Drooping Trillium
(Nodding Wakerobin)

Trillium flexipes
Drooping Trillium
Drooping Trillium
Flower droops but remains above bracts. Green sepals partly reflexed
Large Flowered Trillium
Large-flowered Trillium
(White Trillium)

Trillium grandiflorum
Large Flowered Trillium
Large-flowered Trillium
Largest flower of white trilliums, erect, facing outward. Pink with age.
Snow Trillium
Snow Trillium
Trillium nivale
Snow Trillium leaf
Snow Trillium
Smallest Trillium, sepals with purplish tones, bracts small and more narrow.
Nannyberry
Nannyberry*
Viburnum lentago
Nannyberry leaf
Nannyberry*
Leaf- egg shape, fine teeth, in opposite pairs, stalks reddish with small wings.
Thumbnail
Highbush Cranberry*
(American Cranberrybush
)
Viburnum opulus var. americanum
(Moist area plant)
Highbush cranberry leaf
Highbush Cranberry*

Leaf 3-lobed, coarse teeth, small stalked glands on leaf stalk. Flowers similar to European Cranberry.
European Cranberrybush
European Cranberrybush*
Viburnum opulus
European Cranberry leaf
European Cranberrybush*
Leaf 3-lobed, with a few coarse teeth, small unstalked glands on leaf stalk. Flowers similar to Highbush Cranberry.
Canada Violet
Canada Violet
Yellow tinting at petal base
Viola canadensis
Canada Violet leaf
Canada VioletLeaves basal & stem, heart shape base, veins patterned. Basal on long stalks.


Flowers Yellow and yellowish

Marsh Marigold
Marsh Marigold
(Cowslip)

Caltha palustris
Marsh Marigold leaf
Marsh Marigold
Leaves basal & stem, heart shaped, basal on long stalks. Soft hair under
Leatherwood
Eastern Leatherwood*
Dirca palustris
Leatherwood leaf
Eastern Leatherwood*
Leaves elliptic, alternate, short stalks, unfold after flowering
Yellow Trout-lily
Yellow Troutlily
(Dogtooth Violet)

Erythronium americanum
Kidneyleaf Buttercup
Kidneyleaf Buttercup
Littleleaf Buttercup

Ranunculus abortivus
Basal leaf
Kidneyleaf Buttercup
Littleleaf Buttercup

Unique basal leaves
Swamp Buttercup
Swamp Buttercup
(Hispid Buttercup)

Ranunculus hispidus var. nitidus
Swamp Buttercup Leaf
Swamp Buttercup
Basal leaf - the largest, 3 parts, each part divided. Upper leaves more simple
Hooked Crowfoot
Hooked Crowfoot
(Blisterwort)

Ranunculus recurvatus
Hooked Crowfoot Leaf
Hooked Crowfoot
Lower stem leaf
Ranunculus recurvatus
Wood Poppy
Wood Poppy
Stylophorum diphyllum
Wood Poppy leaf
Wood Poppy
Leaves - rounded lobes, deeply divided, pinnatifid, most basal.
Yellow Trillium
Yellow Trillium
(Yellow Wakerobin)

Trillium luteum
Some flowers will be yellow-green in color.
Large Flowered Bellwort
Large-flowered Bellwort
Uvularia grandiflora
Large-flowered Bellwort
Large-flowered BellwortLeaves pierced by stem, flower stem nods downward. Tepals twisted.
Yellow Violet
Downy Yellow Violet
Viola pubescens
Downy Yellow Violet leaf
Downy Yellow Violet
Flower solitary from upper leaf axil. Leaves basal and stem.
Golden Alexanders
Golden Alexanders
(Golden Zizia)

Zizia aurea


Flowers yellow-green, gray-green, green.

Jack-in-pulpit
Jack-in-the-pulpit
Arisaema triphyllum
Sweet Fern plant
Sweet Fern*
Comptonia peregrina
Sweet Fern
Sweet Fern*
Leaves long, narrow, lobed, gland-dotted, plant monoecious. Female flower shown.
American Hazelnut male catkins
American Hazelnut*
(Male Catkins)
Corylus americana
Note small female flower on stem to right of the long catkin.
Swamp Saxifrage
Eastern Swamp Saxifrage
Micranthes pensylvanica [Saxifraga pensylvanica]
Swamp Saxifrage Plant
Eastern Swamp Saxifrage
Hairy lance-shape leaves all basal. Flower stalk with glandular hair, up to 3 feet high.
Common Buckthorn
Common Buckthorn*
Rhamnus cathartica
Common Buckthorn leaf
Common Buckthorn
Common Buckthorn leaf - marginal teeth.
fragrant sumac
Fragrant Sumac*
Rhus aromatica
fragrant Sumac Leaf
Fragrant Sumac* Leaf
Rhus aromatica
American Black Current
American Black Currant*
(Wild Black Currant)

Ribes americanum
American Black Currant Leaf
American Black Currant*
(Wild Black Currant)
Leaf- 3 to 5 toothed lobes, main veins from base. Underside with visible yellow glands.
Garden Currant
Garden Currant*
Ribes rubrum
Upright Carrion Flower
Carrion Flower - Upright
Smilax ecirrhata
Carrion Flower Vine
Carrion Flower - Upright
Erect, no prickles, flowers in ball-like umbel from bracts on stem below leaves
Carrion Flower
Common Carrion Flower
Smilax lasioneura.
Common Carrion Flower
Carrion Flower - Common
Flowers in long-stalked umbels from the leaf axils. Berries same as upright.
Early Meadow Rue
Early Meadow Rue
Thalictrum dioicum
Veiny Meadow Rue
Veiny Meadow Rue
Thalictrum venulosum
Veiny Meadow Rue leaf
Veiny Meadow Rue
Leaves of Early & Veiny similar. Early-flower anthers yellowish, Veiny-more purplish.
Yellow trillium
Yellow Trillium
(Yellow Wakerobin)

Trillium luteum
Some flowers more yellow-green in color.
Prickly Ash
Prickly-Ash*
Zanthoxylum americanum
Prickly ash leaf
Prickly-Ash*
Leaves pinnate, 5 - 11 leaflets, twigs aromatic with prickles. Thorns on twigs, seed capsules red.


Flowers blue, bluish and bluish-pink

Blue Cohosh
Blue Cohosh
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Blue Cohosh leaf
Blue Cohosh
Leaf - 3 to 4 3-parted sections, each section with 3 parts (27 leaflets per leaf)
Virginia Waterleaf
Virginia Waterleaf
(Eastern Waterleaf)

Hydrophyllum virginianum
Virginia Waterleaf
Virginia Waterleaf
Leaves stalked, 3 - 7 lobes, larger have tip and base lobes separated.
Virginia Bluebells
Virginia Bluebells
Mertensia virginica
Virginia Bluebells leaf
Virginia Bluebells
Leaves basal & stem, elliptical, smooth, basal larger & floppy.
Wild Blue Phlox
Wild Blue Phlox
Phlox divaricata
Jacob's Ladder
Jacob's Ladder
(Greek Valerian)

Polemonium reptans
Jacob's Ladder leaf
Jacob's Ladder
Plant under 20 inches high, leaf- 7-17 leaflets, smooth edges, frequently reclining.
Blue Squill
Blue Squill
Scilla siberica
Running Myrtle
Common Periwinkle
(Running Myrtle)

Vinca Minor
Common Periwinkle leaf
Common Periwinkle
Creeping stems, leaves glossy, evergreen, flowers solitary.
Common Blue violet
Common Blue Violet
Viola sororia
Common Blue Violet leaf
Common Blue Violet
Leaves ovate to heart shape, rise from root on long stalks, form rosette. Flowers on separate sem.


Flowers pinkish, rosy, pink-purple and deep purple

Wild Ginger
Wild Ginger
(Canadian Wild Ginger)

Asarum canadense
Wild Ginger leaf
Wild Ginger
Leaves - 2 per plant, hairy stalks and underside, up to 6” wide. Stem prostrate.
Asparagus
Asparagus
Asparagus officinalis
Asparagus leaf
Asparagus
Stem erect, branched, pseudo-leaves (cladophylis) tiny sticks on side branches
Fumewort
Fumewort
(Spring Fumewort)

Corydalis solida
Fumewort leaf
Fumewort
Leaf pinnate, deeply cleft, dense, terminal lobe with crenations
Shooting Star
Shooting Star
(Pride of Ohio)

Dodecatheon meadia
Shooting star plant
Shooting Star
Flowering scape held above basal rosette of oblong leaves.
Mn Dwarf Troutlily
Minnesota Dwarf Troutlily
Erythronium propullans
Wild Geranium
Wild Geranium
(Spotted Geranium)

Geranium maculatum
Wild Geranium leaf
Wild Geranium
Basal leaves palmately divided, 5 - 7 lobes. Pair small leaves on flower stem.
Thumbnail
Dame's Rocket
(Sweet Rocket)

Hesperis matronalis
Dame's Rocket Leaf
Dame's Rocket-white
(Sweet Rocket)

Leaves alternate, lance-shape, toothed. Flowers in loose terminal cluster.
Foamy Bells
Foamy Bells
xheucherella tiarelloides
Foamy bells leaf
Foamy Bells
Garden hybrid with Foam Flower; more pinkish color. leaves all basal in a clump.
Climbing honeysuckle
Climbing Honeysuckle (Limber Honeysuckle)
Lonicera dioica
Rue anemone
Rue Anemone
Thalictrum thalictroides
Rue Anemone Leaf
Rue Anemone
Flowers rise from stem, not from leaf axils. Leaf-like bracts directly under flowers
Wild Oats
Wild Oats
(Sissileleaf Bellwort)

Uvularia sessilifolia
Wild Oats
Wild Oats
Leaves clasp, but don’t pierce stem. Flower solitary, drooping, tepals flare at tip.
Skunk Cabbage
Skunk Cabbage -early, before leaf-out
Symplocarpus foetidus
Skunk Cabbage
Skunk Cabbage during leaf-out
Symplocarpus foetidus
Sweet Betsy
Sweet Betsy
Trillium cuneatum
Leaflet to 6" wide, flower to 3" high.
Sweet Betsy
Sweet Betsy
Trillium cuneatum
Sweet Betsy and Toadshade have similar but different size leaves - no leaflet stalks.
Purple Trillium
Purple Trillium
Trillium erectum
Purple Trillium
Purple Trillium
Flower facing outward, color variable, petals & sepals of equal length.
Prairie Trillium
Prairie Trillium
Trillium recurvatum
Prairie Trillium
Prairie Trillium
Flower erect, petals not spreading, green sepals hang dowward.
Toadshade
Toadshade
Trillium sessile
Leaflets to 3" wide, flower to 1.5" high.
Toadshape
Toadshade
Sweet Betsy
Sweet Betsy and Toadshade have similar but different size leaves - no leaflet stalks.


Flowers reddish, orange, brown

Wild Columbine
Wild Columbine
(Red Columbine)

Aquilegia canadensis
Columbine leaf
Wild Columbine
Leaves divided into 3-leaflet groups, each leaflet cleft at tips.
American Hazelnut male catkins
American Hazelnut*
(Male Catkins)
Corylus americana
Note small female flower on stem to right of the long catkin.
American Hazelnut female flowers
American Hazelnut*
(Female flowers)
Male flowers in hanging catkins, female is small buds - both before the leaves.
American Hazelnut leaf
American Hazelnut*
Leaves oval, double-toothed, dark green, pale under, hairy stiff stalk
Prairie Smoke
Prairie Smoke
(Old Man's Whiskers)

Geum triflorum
Prairie Smoke
Prairie Smoke
(Seed-head stage)
Geum triflorum

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