Yellow Lady Slipper

History of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

Winter 1946/1947

Martha Crone
Martha Crone in the Garden in a 1951 photo.

1947 completes the 41st year of the Garden and Martha Crones 15th year as Curator.

Many new plants set out in 1947 are, again like 1946, non-native, apparently an attempt to see what would grow in the new prairie area. Many did not last until the 1951 census. The source is given for some of new plants. With the development of the Upland Garden, it is incredible the amount of planting Martha Crone did in 1946 and 1947 and little wonder that her log is virtually devoid of mentioning bird activity, which she usually never neglected. Even the warbler migration is not noted. Birds are only mentioned three times - August 1st “Birds still singing,” September 14 “Pileated woodpecker was working on the Oak tree on path to north of office” and a note on September 24 that “a few Hummingbirds still here.” Martha religiously noted the arrival of the first Hummingbird and the departure of the last.

Spring 1947

Arctic Blackberry
Arctic Blackberry, Rubus arcticus, planted by Martha Crone in 1947 and 1950 and subsequently planted by Ken Avery in 1962. Photo ©Josuha A. Horkey, Wisconsin Flora.

Spring was not agreeable the first two weeks of April. The first entry in the Garden log was April 1:

"Garden still snow and ice bound, no sign of green growth.” On April 5 & 6: “Heavy snow, paths in muddy condition, impossible to work anywhere.” (1)

April 14th found the 1st Snow Trilliums in bud and the Pasque Flowers. On April 17 the paths in the Garden were in fair spring condition but more snow fell.

A large number of plants new to the Garden were introduced in April, all from Henderson’s Nursery in Greenburg Indiana. Of those, the following are new to the Garden and we note which ones survived until the 1951 census. "Native" refers to a plant found in the wild in Minnesota, at settlement time. "Introduced" means the plant is found here but originally imported from somewhere else. "Not native" means the plant is native to elsewhere in North America but not Minnesota. Updated scientific names are given in [ ].

April 30th was the first warm day of spring - 81 degrees. The month had been cold and rainy with 23 days of rain.

On May 3 Martha noted that all the recently planted Hepaticas (she planted the Sharp-lobed almost every year) were doing well and “one clump of Round-lobed Hepatica has 125 blossoms.” (1)

Another large group of plants new to the Garden were planted in May. Some of these do not have the source listed.

Carolina Rhododendron
Carolina Rhododendron planted by Martha Crone in 1947 as part of a group of Rhododendron species to show off the Woodland Garden. Photo ©Smithsonian Institution.

May ended with cold and frost on 27th. By the end of May over 2,500 new plants were in the ground.

Summer 1947

Grass of Parnassus
Grass of Parnassus, the species Parnassia glauca, which is suspected to be what Martha Crone planted in 1947. Photo ©G D Bebeau

The water system for the Garden that Martha had requested was installed into the Upland Garden at the close of the season. The connection to the city water supply was made northeast of the Garden at Xerxes Ave. and Chestnut Street. (1) The crew ran out of narrow diameter pipe and the final leg was built with larger diameter pipe, resulting in poor water pressure. Prior to this Martha had to bring water from home when needed for any seedlings if there was little rain and the pool in the Garden was dry. It would be 1964 before the connection would be extended down to the Woodland Garden. (3)

During the summer months she added another 3,700 plants. Of those the following are new to the Garden and we note which ones survived until the 1951 census. Several of these species are questionable as her source is within Minnesota, but these species do not grow here, nor ever been collected here:

Martha Crone
Photo from the August 27 Tribune article

There had always been an open pool of water at the north end of the wetland part of the lower Garden. The pool was created in the first years of the Garden when Eloise Butler constructed a dam across an out-flowing water channel. Martha had three more pools dug out further south in the wetland creating a series of three small pools along the new 1946 trail. The original Butler pool was quite shady, not allowing sun-loving plants to grow. While she did not make a reference to these pools until she wrote her 1947 report we believe they were created in late 1946 since they seem to appear on a 1947 aerial photo next to the new wetland path. (see 1948 for a photo of a new pool and aerial photo below.) She writes:

A new item of interest added to the garden is a series of pools wherein are planted water lilies, pickerel-weed, lotus lily and water crowfoot. These pools are situated along the swamp trail where an intimate view of them may be had when in bloom.(2)

One entry in Martha's log this summer was historically significant. On July 17 she wrote "4 Willow herb from lower enclosure." This is the last time she mentions removing plants from the north meadow that contained Eloise Butler's Mallard Pool. A previous entry occurred in the Summer of 1946. We believe that northern area and the pool was abandoned by 1944 and Martha is retrieving some plants. Martha made no entries in her log of planting in that area after 1939. More details on the meadow and the Mallard Pool in this article.

On August 27, the Minneapolis Tribune published an article titled “Wild Flowers bring Glint to Male Eyes, Curator Says.” Martha Crone was quoted saying “Men are much more interested in wild flowers than women are. I couldn’t tell you why, but we have many more men visitors, and in recent years the interest seems to have increased.” The article also mentions how helpful Clinton Odell has been and how Martha obtains plants for the Garden, including rescues from building sites. The photo published with the article shows Martha tending a clump of Blazing Star. The same photo was used in 1948 and 1950 in other Tribune articles about the Garden. (PDF of article)

Below: This spring 1947 aerial photo shows the Garden area. Annotated are the 3 new pools along the new wetland path, Eloise Butler's original pool and the new fence around the new Upland Garden. The white specs in the wetland are defects on the photo negative. The Garden Office is visible in the lower (Southern) section of the photo. North is up. Compare to Martha Crone's 1952 map shown below in the autumn section. Photo courtesy University of Minnesota. Click on image for a larger version which includes more of the surrounding area.

1947 aerial photo

Autumn 1947

Downy Gentian
Downy Gentian, Gentiana puberulenta, first introduced by Martha Crone in 1947. Photo G D Bebeau

By the time the Garden closed the total count of plants set out in 1947 was 8,822. The following plant set out in the autumn was new to the Garden:

On October 22 Martha noted “many flowers still in bloom. Robins eating Mt. Ash berries, Temperature 88° Oct. 21.”

In addition Martha planted seeds of 52 species - a list that covers two pages of hand written notes. Most seeds were planted in flats near the office where they would over-winter as necessary for germination. Her planting continued throughout October and into November. The Garden season had been extended to the end of October for the first time this year. She noted on November 7th: “Blizzard, starting like Armistice Day Storm.” Her last work of the year was planting seeds of Downy Gentian (Gentiana puberula) on the snow and in flats on November 19th and a large Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea) on November 24th that she had received from the “mum show”. She noted “Has been snowing every other day since the 7th. Cold & Wintery, altho the ground isn’t frozen under the snow.”

As in the previous year, there were some existing species that were planted in very large numbers at various times during the year. Rather than list them by season, here it the list for the year of such plants:

Trillium nivale, Snow Trillium, 222 plants
Hepatica acutiloba, Sharp-lobed Hepatica, 1,350
Viola pedata, Bird’s-foot Violet, 575
Lobelia cardinalis, Cardinal Flower, 670
Osmunda regalis, Royal Fern, 111
Clelone obliqua, Red Turtlehead, 150
Tiarella cordifolia, Foam Flower, 135
Many of these were seedlings that Martha had seeded in flats the prior year.

In her annual report to the Park Board Martha again thanks Clinton Odell as follows:

I again express my sincere appreciation to Mr. Clinton M. Odell for the splendid assistance rendered, also for the 150 plant markers added to the large number already contributed the previous year. (2)

She then reported:

Appreciation of the beauty of wild flowers is steadily growing as evidenced by the attendance having increased to 38,000 this season.
More trails have been established through the swamp which permit easy access to heretofore unused territory. These trails stimulate an interest in, and an appreciation of our wild flora as well as stirring a vital urge for visitors to come again.(2)

In 1946 Martha had put in the first trail through the heart of the wetland. Eloise Butler never had a central path going through from south to north, only a loop path on the east and west sides of the wetland. This 1946 path would be in a similar position to the Lady-slipper Lane of today and is labeled “Swamp Trail” on the map below. The additional trails she mentions in 1947 are branches off of the 1946 path. It is unclear if the the large loop on the north end of the West Path is new or if the short-cut to the Foot Bridge is new at this time. The aerial photo shown above shows all these paths but we do not have an earlier photo that is clear enough to determine if they predate 1946/47. A map she drew for her 1952 self-guided brochure shows what the paths probably were after her 1947 work.

Below: Map of the trails in the Garden as used in the 1952 self-guided brochure. The "swamp trail" was created in 1946. The short side paths off of that and the "violet path" were all in existence in early 1947 when the aerial photo shown above was taken. The position of the 3 new pools is noted. Map is not to scale - the vertical distance is much compressed to fit the brochure. Click on image for a larger version. Map courtesy J.S. Futcher Collection.

1951 map
Ram's-head Lady's-slipper
Ramshead Lady's-slipper, Cypripedium arietinum, although planted many times, this is probably the species missing from Martha Crone's Lady's-slipper list in 1947. Photo by Martha Crone on June 9, 1954.

She notes that “the four species of Lady’s-slippers were second to none in beauty.”(2)
This would eliminate at least one or two species that had been in the Garden. Based on her planting records and log notes it would seem that those still there would be Cypripedium acaule, the Stemless; C. candidum, the Small White; C. parviflorum var. makasin, the smaller flowered of the Yellow; and C. reginae, the Showy. These had been planted almost every year. The one most probably missing is C. arietinum, The Ramshead. That had not been planted since 1937 and was not replanted until 1950.

The second “possibly missing” one is the larger flowered variety of the Yellow, C. parviflorum var. pubescens. That had not been planted since 1941, although it is possible she counted both flower sizes as one of the four in existence. The Ramshead was always difficult to grow. Martha planted it again in 1950, ’51 and ’53 and Ken Avery tried again in 1974 but they were always short lived after transplanting.

Her next note is that “the fern glen was a picture of green loveliness the entire season.” As the current Fern Glen was not yet developed, she is referring to Eloise Butler’s ‘fernery’ located on the northeast facing side hill at the south end of the Woodland Garden where the extensive growth of Interrupted Fern is found.

About the extended season, she writes: “The Garden’s extended season made it possible to properly mulch plants for winter protection, which must be delayed until after freezing. A great deal of dead timber was also removed at this time. It is hope that this extension will be carried on.”(2)

Martha had two workmen available this year - Fred Gau and Eddy Subourin (4).

(1) Garden Log - 1947

(2) Annual Reports of the Garden Curator to the Board of Park Commissioners - dated January 24, 1948 to Charles E. Doell.

(3) The Fringed Gentian™, Vol. 26 No.1. Winter 1978, Interview with Martha Crone.

(4) Martha Crone records at Minnesota Historical Society.

Photo top of page: Yellow Lady Slipper, Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin. Photo by Martha Crone on June 6, 1957.

To History of: Previous Year ----------- Subsequent Year

Year chart - all years

Garden History Archive

Printable PDF file of this page.

Links to related pages:
- Abbreviated Life of Eloise Butler

- Martha Crone - 2nd Garden Curator

- Ken Avery - 3rd Curator and Gardener

- Cary George - 4th Gardener

- Our Native Plant Reserve - Short document on the origins of the Garden.

- Eloise Butler's writings, a selection of essays written by Eloise Butler on the early Garden years.

- Geography of the Garden- an illustrated tour


Martha Crone's Garden Log and her 1951 Census of plants in the Garden.

Various papers and correspondence of Eloise Butler and Martha Crone in the collection of the Minnesota Historical Society.

Photos by Martha Crone are from her collection of Kodachromes that was given to the Friends by her daughter Janet following Martha's death in 1989.

Historical Climatology of Minneapolis-St. Paul Area by Charles Fisk.

Friends Home Page

©2017 Friends of the Wild Flower Garden, Inc. Photos as credited and are used with permission for educational purposes, for which the Friends thank them and the organization providing the photos. Text and research by Gary Bebeau. "" - 030422