The oldest public wildflower garden in the United States
Cow Parsnip (American Cow Parsnip)
Heracleum maximum Bartram
Late Spring to Late Summer Flowering
Cow Parsnip is a native erect perennial forb growing from 3 to 8 feet high. The stout stem is ridged, hollow and usually fuzzy. Identification is by the very broad cluster (up to a foot wide) of very small white 5-parted flowers in fairly flat-topped umbels that are atop a stem that has color ranges from green to reddish green. Leaves can be 2 feet wide. Some say the plant has a foul odor, others classify it as simply pungent.
Leaves: At the stem the stalk of the leaf enlarges to a clasping sheath; the leaves have soft hairs and are 3-parted with toothed or palmate leaflets; each leaflet has a short hairy stalk. Lower leaves can be up to 2 feet wide and always have 3-parted palmate leaflets. The most upper stem leaves may be simply 3-lobed, not 3-parted.
The inflorescence is a compound umbel, fairly flat-topped, composed on 15 to 30 stalked smaller umbellets. At the base of each umbellet are 5 to 10 narrow leafy bracts which do not persist. [An umbel has flowers branching from a common point with stalk lengths about equal so as to make a flat to domed flower cluster giving all flowers equal access to sunlight.]
Flowers: The flowers are 5-parted with the 5 white petals deeply notched so as to appear as 10 petals. Petal tips are acute to rounded and the petal margins incurved. Several of the petals are larger than the others. There are 5 stamens with white filaments and brownish-purple anthers. The stamens are placed opposite the petals and are exserted beyond the corolla throat. There is a large yellow-green 2-part ovary with a divided style.
Seed: The fruit of Cow Parsnip is an ovate flattened structure with broad wings that, when dry, separates front to back into two seeds. Squeezing the seeds produces a Parsley odor. Dry seeds are wind dispersed but do not germinate the first year. It is believed they require a cold moist period, followed by a warm moist period, followed by another cold moist period, germinating the second year. Best to sow in the fall and let nature take care of it.
Habitat: Cow Parsnip is a plant of moist areas and moist roadsides, you will find in on marsh edges, stream sides, damp open meadows. It grows from a stout taproot and associated fibrous roots. It tolerates partial shade, but not permanently wet soils. The Garden representatives are seen near the wetland at the far end of the Woodland Garden. See Eloise Butler's notes below.
Names: The genus name, Heracleum, named after Hercules, is fitting for this plant as it is truly the robust giant of the flowered plants that form umbels. The species name, maximum, also refers to large-ness. The accepted author name for the plant classification, ‘Bartram’ refers to John Bartram (1699-1777) early American botanist and explorer who traveled extensively in the colonies collecting plants. He was the most important contributor of plants to European gardens and herbariums of that era. Linnaeus considered him the ‘greatest natural botanist is the world. In 1765 he became “The King’s Botanist” for North America although King George paid little attention to what he sent. His and his son William’s writings made a deep influence on the school of Romantic writers of England.
There is an unsettled issue in the classification field as to whether the species name just described should be used for the scientific name. Some references prefer it as it reflects Bartram's work which preceded that of Michaux. Other authorities differ and believe H. lanatum Michx. should be used, where the plant classification author is Andre Michaux (1746-1802), French botanist who made many exploring expeditions in the U.S. collecting and cataloging many species. His classification did not appear until he published Flora Boreali-Americana (2 vols., 1803, (published posthumously).The species name, lanatum, means 'woolly', referring to the plant hair. The University of Minnesota Herbarium prefers maximum and Flora of North America has not yet published an updated text on the Apiaeae family.
Comparisons: You will probably not mistake this giant for any other when the combination is large palmate leaves and umbels of very small white flowers.
See bottom of page for notes on the Garden's planting history, distribution in Minnesota and North America, lore and other references.
Above: 1st photo - The flower cluster after mid-June (of a typical year) 2nd photo - The individual flower. Note the deep notches in the five petals several of which are larger than the others. All have in-turned edges. 3rd photo - The leaf forming a sheath at the base. Note the stem ridges.
Below: 1st photo - A single flower umbel of stalked flowers with some of the small bracts still present. 2nd photo - Leaf stalks of the 3-part leaf are very hairy.
Below: The basal leaves are 3-parted with toothed or palmate leaflets, each of which has a short stalk. Lower leaves can be up to 2 feet wide and the one shown here has leaflets with palmate divisions and coarse toothed lobes.
Below: The fruit of Cow Parsnip is an ovate flattened structure (2nd photo) that when dry separates front to back into two seeds. In a year with an early season, such as 2012, the dry seeds are already forming at the end of June.
Below: The compound flower umbel of Cow Parsnip as seen from below showing the umbrella-like umbels with their individual flower stalks.
Below: Historical Garden Photo - A grouping of Cow Parsnip in the Woodland Garden on June 15, 1953; photo from a Kodachrome by Martha Crone.
Below: The inflorescence on a plant on June 8, 2017.
Notes: Cow Parsnip is indigenous to the Garden area. Eloise Butler's records show that she obtained plants of this species in 1911 from the area of Glenwood-Inglewood Springs in Minneapolis (which is quite close to the Garden.) Another plant was obtained from the same source on May 16, 1913 and on June 21 and Oct. 16, 1914. It is listed on Martha Crone's 1951 census of plants in the Garden. The plant is found in most counties throughout Minnesota, the exceptions widely scattered. In North America its range is extensive, being reported in all Canadian Provinces, and in all States except the SE section.
Eloise Butler wrote this about Cow Parsnip: "It seems necessary to write a work in favor of what are usually called weeds, which may be defined as plants out of place, growing where we wish something else to grow. The Cow Parsnip shows fine decorative possibilities. A rampant growth of this herb gave character to a certain roadside. Barely an hour after a photograph was taken, the plants were mown down and nothing left in their place by monotonous stubble. A plea is offered for the next season: O scytheman, spare this weed! It is harmless, and does its best to make glad the waste places. It is named for the god Hercules on account of its massive bulk. Compare it with the Castor bean occupying the central post of honor in an ornamental mound of flowers. Has it not as vigorous a growth; are not the leaves as large and finely formed and the flowers as beautiful as that of the favored imported canna?" Published in the Minneapolis Sunday Tribune July 2, 1911
Medicinal Lore: In her study of the Minnesota Chippewa, Frances Densmore lists several native uses for this plant, the most important being in the treatment of boils. The root was boiled and then applied as a drawing poultice. Dried root and flowers combined together, also made a poultice without first boiling the root. Secondarily, a decoction made from the dried root was used as a gargle for sore throat. (Ref. #5). Tilford (Ref. #39) reports that the roots are edible but are bitter with a strong taste. Mature green seeds produce a mild anesthetic action when chewed. He also warns that some people are susceptible to dermatitis after handling Cow Parsnip.
Other uses: Fernald (Ref.#6) reports that white settlers generally shunned the plant due to the disagreeable odor and taste of raw green stalks and shoots. However it was used by natives and when cooked (boiled) with two waterings it becomes an agreeable and delicious vegetable. The roots, when cooked, resemble and taste like Rutabaga.
References and site links
References: Plant characteristics are generally from sources 1A, 32, W2, W3, W7 & W8 plus others as specifically applied. Distribution principally from W1, W2 and 28C. Planting history generally from 1, 4 & 4a. Other sources by specific reference. See Reference List for details.
Identification booklet for most of the flowering forbs and small flowering shrubs of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden. Details Here.
Friends of the Wild Flower Garden, Inc. Text and photos are by G. D. Bebeau unless otherwise credited. "www.friendsofthewildflowergarden.org"