The Friends of the Wild Flower Garden, Inc.

Plants of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

The oldest public wildflower garden in the United States


Common Name
Northern Blazing Star (New England Blazing Star, Northern Gayfeather)


Scientific Name
Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd. var. novae-angliae Lunell


Plant Family
Aster (Asteraceae)

Garden Location
Previously reported but unlikely


Prime Season
Late Summer to Autumn



Blazing Stars (also called Gayfeathers) of the Liatris genus have general characteristics of: Stem leaves narrow and lance shaped; the flower heads, typically numbering 5 to 60 (but 160+ on a few species), appear on a spike, each flowerhead containing a number of small tubular 5-lobed pink-purple florets. Local variations in species populations will be observed. Rootstocks are corms and rhizomes.

L. scariosa grows on erect stems from 1 to 5 feet in height. Stems have fine ridges and usually have some fine hair particularly in the upper part. Stem color is greenish below shading to reddish in the upper parts.

Leaves are both basal and stem. Leaves have a long elliptic to lanceolate shape, usually without hair and are widest just above the middle. The basal leaves are longest, up to 10 inches long and 1-1/2 inches wide. Stem leaves reduce in size gradually (the usual case) abruptly or sometimes not at all, but in any case, they are numerous but not densely packed on the stem. Middle stem leaves average 4-1/2 inches long and 3/8 inch wide, while the upper stem leaves will average 2-1/2 inches by 1/4 inch.

The floral array is a spike of button shaped, 3/4 to 1 inch long flower heads, longer than wide but not more than 1 1/2 times as long as wide, with a noticeable ascending stalk up to 2 inches long, the stalk with small leafy bracts which graduate into the phyllaries; heads not densely packed but a little separated. A stem can have 3 to 60 heads.

Flower heads hold 19 to 80 florets (var. novae-angliae has 35 to 60) which have a pinkish purple tubular corollas with funnelform throats, usually with hair on the inside and the 5 corolla lobes spread outward upon opening. The five stamens surround the single style and are not exserted when the floret opens, but the style is long and deeply bifurcated and exserted and because of the number of florets, the styles give a feathery appearance to a head of open flowers. The phyllaries around the flower head are in 4 to 5 series, oblong-obovate to broadly obovate, unequal in size. Tips are broadly rounded and spreading, but not recurved nor tightly appressed. These are usually without hair but may have translucent margins. These are green with some shading to purple during flowering.

Seed: Fertile flowers produce an obconic dry ribbed seed, (a cypsela) 4.5 to 6 mm long, that has bristly hair attached for wind dispersion. Seeds require 60 days of cold stratification for germination.

Varieties: There are three varieties recognized. Details at the bottom of the page.


Habitat: Liatris scariosa prefers full sun in well drained soil with dry to moderate moisture conditions. It is tolerant of some poorer soils but is intolerant of wet soil in the winter. Long-tongued bees and butterflies will visit these plants. It grows from a sub-globose corm-like structure.

Names: An older scientific name for this species is Liatris borealis. The genus Liatris is an old name whose meaning has been lost. The species scariosa, means 'thin and dry'. As you can see above, a number of common names have been attached to this plant. Northern Blazing Star is the name used by some of the Eastern States whereas Flora of North America calls it Northern Gayfeather. USDA terms it New England Blazing Star - which reflects this particular variety. This is why scientific names are important.

The author names for the plant classification for this species are: First to publish was '(L.)', which refers to Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), Swedish botanist and the developer of the binomial nomenclature of modern taxonomy. He assigned the name Serratula scariosa in 1753. This was amended by John Hill (c1716-1775) to Lacinaria scariosa and finally became Liatris scariosa in 1803 by ‘Willd.’ which is for Carl Ludwig Willdenow (1765-1812), German botanist, a founder of the study of the geographic distribution of plants. He was director and curator of the Botanic Garden of Berlin. The author name of the classification of the variety - ‘Lunell’ is for Joel Lunell, (1851-1920) Swedish-American botanist, whose herbarium collection was donated to the University of Minnesota.

Comparisons: The flower heads of the floral array separate this species from many others. Rough Blazing Star, L. aspera can be similar. Both species have similar shape heads and both can have stem hair. L. aspera however, has up to 35 florets in the flower head whereas L. scariosa usually has that as a minimum although some plants may have as few as 19; also the middle phyllaries of L. aspera have irregularly cut tips. Large-headed Blazing Star, Liatris ligulistylis, is the most likely candidate to be what Eloise Butler and Martha Crone collected (see below). It has 4 to 20 flower heads on stalks, stems have hair and the floret throats do not have hair.

See bottom of page for notes on the Garden's planting history, distribution in Minnesota and North America, lore and other references.

inflorescenceNorthern Blazing Star

Above: The floral array.

Below: The flower heads have a button shape before the florets open and the head elongates. Flower stalk length is variable by variety.

Northern Blazing Star Northern Blazing Star full plant

Below: 1st photo - The small 5-part flowers just beginning to open on this flower head. 2nd photo - The phyllaries of the flower head elongate as the florets open - note they are not tightly appressed nor recurved.

Northern Blazing Star Northern Blazing Star

Below: 1st photo - Another view of the phyllaries with some of the leafy bracts visible below them. 2nd photo - Stems have very hair and a more reddish color near the top, green below. 3rd photo - The underside of the leaves of var. nieuwlandii have fine hair and are gland-dotted. Var. novae-angliae is usually not gland-dotted.

Phyllaries Stem hair leaf underside

Below: Leaves are similar in shape, wider just above the middle, but lower base leaves (bottom) are much longer than the upper stem leaves (top).

Stem and basal leaf

Below: 1st photo - Leaves are numerous but not densely packed on the stem. 2nd photo - The root consists of a sub-globose corm-like structure with long fibrous roots.

Stem leaves root

Below: Seed heads of late September and seeds, which are obconic (narrow inverted pyramid) with ridges and with bristly pappus attached for wind dispersion.

Northern Blazing Star seeds


Notes: This variety is not native to Minnesota. As the common name implies it is native to the New England States and south as far as Pennsylvania and New Jersey. However, in 1908, '10, '13, '14, '17, '18 and almost every year thereafter until 1929, Eloise Butler recorded planting this species, obtained locally from her foraging area at what is now the Minnehaha Park area of Minneapolis; in 1919 plants from Columbia Heights; in 1918 and '20 many plants from Fort Snelling, and so on through the years. She noted it was L. scariosa, but as there are no DNR or U of M Herbarium records of this plant being collected in MN she may have misidentified it. The closest one of the varieties comes to Minnesota is var. nieuwlandii in eastern Wisconsin. So that remains a mystery. What she may have actually collected was Liatris ligulistylis which is native to our area and similar looking. However, on April 30, 1912, she recorded planting specimens obtained from Horsford's Nursery, Charlotte VT. Later, Martha Crone notes planting its seeds in 1944 and plants in 1938, '45, '46, '48, '51, '52, '55, '56, and white flowered ones in 1957, but in between those years it does not appear on her Garden Census of 1951. She also may have planted L. ligulistylis.

In Minnesota five species of Liatris are considered native and several others have been reported but have never been collected. The native five are L. aspera, Rough Blazing Star; L. cylindracea, Ontario Blazing Star; L. ligulistylis, Large-headed (or Rocky Mountain) Blazing Star; L. punctata, Dotted Blazing Star; L. pycnostachya, Prairie Blazing Star.

Varieties: There are three accepted varieties of this species, first separated by how many leafy bracts are near the flower heads: var. scariosa has 8 to 20 bracts with head florets numbering 20 to 40. The next two varieties have 20 to 85 leafy bracts near the flower heads and florets number 30 to 80. This group separates into var. nieuwlandii where the lower stem leaves are over one inch wide and gland dotted and var. novae-angliae where the lower stem leaves are usually less than 0.8 inch wide and not gland dotted.

References and site links

References: Plant characteristics are generally from sources 1A, 32, W2, W3, W7 & W8 plus others as specifically applied. Distribution principally from W1, W2 and 28C. Planting history generally from 1, 4 & 4a. Other sources by specific reference. See Reference List for details.

graphicIdentification booklet for most of the flowering forbs and small flowering shrubs of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden. Details Here.