The Friends of the Wild Flower Garden, Inc.

Plants of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

The oldest public wildflower garden in the United States


Common Name
Wolfberry (Western Snowberry)


Scientific Name
Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook.


Plant Family
Honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae)

Garden Location


Prime Season
Late Spring to Early Summer



Wolfberry is a native deciduous shrub growing on upright finely branching stems from 1 to 5 feet high.

Twigs are slender and green to reddish-green and usually with fine hair.

The leaves are opposite, simple, generally broadly ovate to elliptic in shape with obtuse ends, bluntly rounded to pointed at the tip. Edges are usually without teeth but some leaves on sterile stems may have some very shallow lobes. Margins can also be wavy and each leaf has a short stalk. Leaves are closely spaced on the stems. The upper side is a blue-green without hair. The underside is usually paler in color and with short stiff hair, at least on the mid-veins.

The inflorescence is a dense terminal cluster of flowers at the ends of new stem growth and also from the leaf axils of the upper leaves on the stem.

The flowers are about 1/4 inch long with a bell shaped corolla that is usually pinkish-white (otherwise white) on the outside and white on the inside. The five lobes of the corolla have obtuse tips and are longer than the base part of the corolla. These lobes spread widely compared to Snowberry, making the flower appear wider than long. The inside of the corolla is densely hairy. The elongated green calyx has 5 short triangular shape lobes, whitish-pink in color, that partially clasp an enlarged ovary. There are 5 stamens with white filaments and pale yellow anthers, which turn darker at maturity, and a smooth style. Both stamens and style are exserted beyond the corolla lobes.

Fruit: Fertile flowers produce a round white berry-like drupe, about 1/4 to 3/8 inches in diameter, with a waxy surface texture. Like the flowers, these will be in a small cluster, which will last into the winter as birds do not usually eat them in the autumn. Humans will not find them palatable but they are edible raw or cooked, however, there is some literature that they may be toxic if eaten in large quantities. (see notes below) Each drupe contains 2 seeds, sometimes 3. With proper storage, seeds are viable for a number of years. For germination, seeds of the genus Symphoricarpos require scarification plus several storage periods - a cold moist period followed by a warm moist period followed by another cold moist period. Sowed outside in the fall they do not need scarification and they will germinate in the 2nd year.

Toxicity - see notes below.


Habitat: Wolfberry grows from a fibrous root system that has a branching taproot and the root system produces stolons which allow the plant to spread and produce colonies. It can become dense unless you remove some of the shoots. It adapts to many soils with moist to dry conditions. It will flower and produce fruit in partial sun, but full shade will not produce fruit.

Names: The genus Symphoricarpos is from two Greek words - symphorein, to 'bear together' and karpos, meaning 'fruit', thus referring to fruit borne in clusters. The species occidentalis, means 'western', and is used here to differentiate this species from the Common Snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus. The author name for the plant classification, ‘Hook.’ is for William Hooker, (1785-1865), English Botanist, author, collector, Professor of Botany at the University of Glasgow and the first director of the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. The alternate common name of Western Snowberry is a reference to the similar shape, color and size of the drupe to that of S. albus.

Comparisons: There are two other species of Symphoricarpos that have similar characteristics - Snowberry, S. albus, where the fruit is also white, but the leaves are smaller and has a small flower whose petals do not spread as wide; and Coralberry, S. orbiculatus where the fruit is coral color but the leaf is smaller like Snowberry and likewise the flower does not have widely spreading lobes, but does have a hairy style.

See bottom of page for notes on the Garden's planting history, distribution in Minnesota and North America, lore and other references.

Plant drawing

Above: With many stems and branches, a Wolfberry plant forms its own thicket. Drawing from Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Below: 1st & 2nd photos - The flower clusters are very dense. Center - The outside of the corolla can have pinkish coloration as do the lobes of the calyx; 3rd photo - Fruit matures - these clusters occur at a number of upper leaf axils, not just at the terminal end of the twig.

flower cluster flower fruit

Below: 1st photo - The corolla lobes spread widely showing a densely hairy inside. Stamens and style are exserted. 2nd photo - Fruit is a waxy round drupe.

Flowers Fruit

Below: Leaf margins are wavy the the upper surface is smooth. The paler underside (2nd photo) has fine hair or at least hair on the main ribs as shown here.

leaf leaf underside


Notes: Wolfberry is considered indigenous to the Garden area; Eloise Butler noted the plant in her log on April 29, 1907; and discovered one in bloom on June 1, 1914. She then planted 3 on Oct. 28 that same year, obtained from the Park Board Nursery at Glenwood Lake (now Wirth Lake at Theodore Wirth Park). In her 1926 article Shrubs in the Wild Garden she noted it was on of the four most abundant under-shrubs. She also stated that it could be denominated as "weedy" and was grubbed out continually. Wolfberry is found in most counties of Minnesota with widely scattered exceptions. Of the three species of Symphoricarpos noted in the top section of this page, S. albus and S. occidentalis are native to Minnesota and S. orbiculatus once was and was even on the "special concern" list but it is now considered non-native to the state and has been de-listed as of Aug. 19, 2013.

Wolfberry is found in much of North America - in all the lower Canadian Provinces except the Maritime, and in most of the U.S. except New England, the SE Atlantic and Gulf states and the far Southwest of California, Nevada and Arizona.

Toxicity: The plants of the genus Symphoricarpos contain toxic saponins. These substances are destroyed by cooking but when eaten raw the chemical is poorly absorbed by humans and most of it passes through. Large quantities would be needed for serious toxic effects. The same cannot be said for some other creatures, such as fish, which are seriously affected by saponins.

References and site links

References: Plant characteristics are generally from sources 1A, 32, W2, W3, W7 & W8 plus others as specifically applied. Distribution principally from W1, W2 and 28C. Planting history generally from 1, 4 & 4a. Other sources by specific reference. See Reference List for details.

graphicIdentification booklet for most of the flowering forbs and small flowering shrubs of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden. Details Here.